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A new statistical method for estimating divergence dates of species from DNA sequence data by a molecular clock approach is developed. This method takes into account effectively the information contained in a set of DNA sequence data. The molecular clock of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was calibrated by setting the date of divergence between primates and(More)
A maximum likelihood method for inferring evolutionary trees from DNA sequence data was developed by Felsenstein (1981). In evaluating the extent to which the maximum likelihood tree is a significantly better representation of the true tree, it is important to estimate the variance of the difference between log likelihood of different tree topologies.(More)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences are widely used for inferring the phylogenetic relationships among species. Clearly, the assumed model of nucleotide or amino acid substitution used should be as realistic as possible. Dependence among neighboring nucleotides in a codon complicates modeling of nucleotide substitutions in protein-encoding genes. It seems(More)
Here we show that progress towards a reliable phylogeny for placental mammals at the ordinal level continues apace. We draw especially upon insights from the recent " International Symposium on the (21–25 July 1998), particularly work not incorporated in the remainder of this issue or published elsewhere. Abstracts to talks and posters presented at this(More)
Using the set of all vertebrate mtDNA protein sequences published as of May 1998, plus unpublished examples for elephant and birds, we examined divergence times in Placentalia and Aves. Using a parsimony-based test, we identified a subset of slower evolutionary rate placental sequences that do not appear to violate the clock assumption. Analyzing just these(More)
Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites are the defining neuropathological characteristics of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. They are made of abnormal filamentous assemblies of unknown composition. We show here that Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites from Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies are stained strongly by antibodies directed(More)
Maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenies based on 9,957 amino acid (AA) sites of 45 proteins encoded in the plastid genomes of Cyanophora, a diatom, a rhodophyte (red algae), a euglenophyte, and five land plants are compared with respect to several properties of the data, including between-site rate variation and aberrant amino acid composition in individual(More)
Models of amino acid substitution were developed and compared using maximum likelihood. Two kinds of models are considered. "Empirical" models do not explicitly consider factors that shape protein evolution, but attempt to summarize the substitution pattern from large quantities of real data. "Mechanistic" models are formulated at the codon level and(More)
The phylogenetic relationship among primates, ferungulates (artiodactyls + cetaceans + perissodactyls + carnivores), and rodents was examined using proteins encoded by the H strand of mtDNA, with marsupials and monotremes as the outgroup. Trees estimated from individual proteins were compared in detail with the tree estimated from all 12 proteins (either(More)
We look at the higher-order phylogeny of mammals, analyzing in detail the complete mtDNA sequences of more than 40 species. We test the support for several proposed superordinal relationships. To this end, we apply a number of recently programmed methods and approaches, plus better-established methods. New pairwise tests show highly significant evidence(More)