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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of synthesis and folding of secretory proteins. Perturbations of ER homeostasis affect protein folding and cause ER stress. ER can sense the stress and respond to it through translational attenuation, upregulation of the genes for ER chaperones and related proteins, and degradation of unfolded proteins by a(More)
The brain hypothalamus contains certain secreted molecules that are important in regulating feeding behaviour. Here we show that nesfatin, corresponding to NEFA/nucleobindin2 (NUCB2), a secreted protein of unknown function, is expressed in the appetite-control hypothalamic nuclei in rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of NUCB2 reduces feeding.(More)
The aim of this study was to produce a simplified questionnaire for evaluation of the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A total of 124 patients with an endoscopic diagnosis of GERD completed a 50-part questionnaire, requiring only “yes” or “no” answers, that covered various symptoms related to the upper gastrointestinal tract, as well as(More)
From an exposure of 25.5 kiloton-years of the Super-Kamiokande detector, 900 muon-like and 983 electronlike single-ring atmospheric neutrino interactions were detected with momentum pe > 100 MeV/c, pμ > 200 MeV/c, and with visible energy less than 1.33 GeV. Using a detailed Monte Carlo simulation, the ratio (μ/e)DATA/(μ/e)MC was measured to be 0.61 ±(More)
Brain ischemia induces apoptosis in neuronal cells, but the mechanism is not well understood. When wild-type mice were subjected to bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) for 15 min, apoptosis-associated morphological changes and appearance of TUNEL-positive cells were observed in the striatum and in the hippocampus at 48 h after occlusion.(More)
Although mutation of APC or CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) is rare in breast cancer, activation of Wnt signalling is nonetheless thought to play an important role in breast tumorigenesis, and epigenetic silencing of Wnt antagonist genes, including the secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) and Dickkopf (DKK) families, has been observed in various tumours. In(More)
Excessive nitric oxide (NO) production in cytokine-activated beta cells has been implicated in beta cell disruption in type 1 diabetes. beta cells are very vulnerable to NO-induced apoptosis. However, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unclear. Low concentrations of NO that lead to apoptosis apparently do not cause severe DNA damage in mouse MIN6(More)
Apoptotic cell death in pancreatic beta-cells is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Signals from death receptors and DNA damage have been widely accepted as being triggers of apoptosis in beta-cells. Recent studies indicated that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can sense and transduce apoptotic signals. Various genetic and environmental stresses(More)
One hundred and seventy-four rat loci which contain short tandem repeat sequences were extracted from the GenBank or EMBL data bases and used to define primers for amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the microsatellite regions, creating PCR-formatted sequence-tagged microsatellite sites (STMSs). One hundred and thirty-four STMSs for 118(More)
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) functions as a center to integrate various neuronal activities for regulating feeding behavior. Nesfatin-1, a recently discovered anorectic molecule, is localized in the PVN. However, the anorectic neural pathway of nesfatin-1 remains unknown. Here we show that central injection of nesfatin-1 activates the PVN(More)