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Free fatty acids provide an important energy source as nutrients, and act as signalling molecules in various cellular processes. Several G-protein-coupled receptors have been identified as free-fatty-acid receptors important in physiology as well as in several diseases. GPR120 (also known as O3FAR1) functions as a receptor for unsaturated long-chain free(More)
Chaperone protein BiP binds to Ire1 and dissociates in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, it remains unclear how the signal transducer Ire1 senses ER stress and is subsequently activated. The crystal structure of the core stress-sensing region (CSSR) of yeast Ire1 luminal domain led to the controversial suggestion that the molecule can(More)
BACKGROUND Several studies have suggested that i.v. atropine has a potential role in treating infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS). It remains unclear, however, whether surgery can be replaced by i.v. therapy. METHODS Data were extracted on infants with IHPS who were treated with atropine and/or surgery, from a nationwide administrative database(More)
The 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) family of molecular chaperones cooperates with cofactors to promote protein folding, assembly of protein complexes and translocation of proteins across membranes. Although many cofactors of cytosolic Hsp70s have been identified, knowledge about cofactors of BiP/Kar2p, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident Hsp70, is(More)
Molecular chaperones prevent aggregation of denatured proteins in vitro and are thought to support folding of diverse proteins in vivo. Chaperones may have some selectivity for their substrate proteins, but knowledge of particular in vivo substrates is still poor. We here show that yeast Rot1, an essential, type-I ER membrane protein functions as a(More)
The 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) family comprises the most abundant and important group of molecular chaperones. Hsp70s cooperate with a number of cofactors, which define their functions. We recently reported that a yeast protein, Rot1, is a putative cofactor of BiP, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized Hsp70. Rot1 is an essential ER membrane(More)
The type II diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) contain several functional domains such as a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, two C1 domains and a sterile α-motif (SAM) domain. It was previously revealed that DGKδ contributes to hyperglycemia-induced peripheral insulin resistance and thereby exacerbate the severity of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, a high(More)
The luminal domain of the type I transmembrane protein Ire1 senses endoplasmic reticulum stress by an undefined mechanism to up-regulate the signalling pathway for the unfolded protein response. Previously, we proposed that the luminal domain of yeast Ire1 is divided into five subregions, termed subregions I-V sequentially from the N-terminus. Ire1 lost(More)
In the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway, accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activates a transmembrane kinase/ribonuclease Ire1, which causes the transcriptional induction of ER-resident chaperones, including BiP/Kar2. It was previously hypothesized that BiP/Kar2 plays a direct role in the signaling(More)