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In order to separate the cognitive processes associated with phonological encoding and the use of a visual word form lexicon in reading, it is desirable to compare the processing of words presented in a visually familiar form with words in a visually unfamiliar form. Japanese Kana orthography offers this possibility. Two phonologically equivalent but(More)
A goal in visual neuroscience is to reveal how the visual system reconstructs the three-dimensional (3D) representation of the world from two-dimensional retinal images. Although the importance of texture gradient cues in the process of 3D vision has been pointed out, most studies concentrate on the neural process based on binocular disparity. We report the(More)
It has been empirically established that the cerebral cortical areas defined by Brodmann one hundred years ago solely on the basis of cellular organization are closely correlated to their function, such as sensation, association, and motion. Cytoarchitectonically distinct cortical areas have different densities and types of neurons. Thus, signaling patterns(More)
Concealed information, which is information only known to oneself is sometimes crucial for criminal investigation. In this study, we examined cortical activations related to incidental responses to concealed information. We found that cortical responses to stimuli related to concealed information were different from those to other stimuli; the bilateral(More)
Reward and punishment have opposite affective value but are both processed by the cingulate cortex. However, it is unclear whether the positive and negative affective values of monetary reward and punishment are processed by separate or common subregions of the cingulate cortex. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using a free-choice(More)
In this article we address the major issue of space vision, how the brain represents the 3D shape of objects in the real world, on the basis of psychophysics and neurophysiology. In psychophysics, Gibson found texture gradients and width gradients, as well as the gradient of binocular disparity, as the major cues for surface orientation in depth. Marr(More)
It has been reported that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has a variety of functions relating to pain as well as pain perception. However, the underlying mechanisms for those functions remain unclear. To elucidate the functional role of the ACC in pain perception and pain-related functions such as attention to pain and escape from pain, single neuronal(More)
Antisaccade tasks require a subject to inhibit a saccade toward a briefly appearing peripheral target and instead to immediately generate a saccade to an equivalent point in the opposite hemifield. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the neural networks required to inhibit reflexive saccades and to voluntarily generate(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine brain areas involved in simple arithmetic, and to compare these areas between adults and children. Eight children (four girls and four boys; age, 9-14 years) and eight adults (four women and four men; age, 40-49 years) were subjected to this study. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed during(More)
BACKGROUND Recent findings of neuroimaging studies indicate that reading aloud and arithmetic calculation activate bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of humans. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of reading aloud and arithmetic calculation, by elderly people who were clinically diagnosed with dementia Alzheimer type, on their brain(More)