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A class of neurons specifically related to hand movements was studied in the posterior parietal cortex while the monkeys manipulated different types of objects. We examined the neuronal activity during manipulation of objects by the hand in the light and in the dark. Fiftyfive neurons were active during manipulation in the dark and were classified as(More)
It has been empirically established that the cerebral cortical areas defined by Brodmann one hundred years ago solely on the basis of cellular organization are closely correlated to their function, such as sensation, association, and motion. Cytoarchitectonically distinct cortical areas have different densities and types of neurons. Thus, signaling patterns(More)
In order to separate the cognitive processes associated with phonological encoding and the use of a visual word form lexicon in reading, it is desirable to compare the processing of words presented in a visually familiar form with words in a visually unfamiliar form. Japanese Kana orthography offers this possibility. Two phonologically equivalent but(More)
Antisaccade tasks require a subject to inhibit a saccade toward a briefly appearing peripheral target and instead to immediately generate a saccade to an equivalent point in the opposite hemifield. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the neural networks required to inhibit reflexive saccades and to voluntarily generate(More)
A goal in visual neuroscience is to reveal how the visual system reconstructs the three-dimensional (3D) representation of the world from two-dimensional retinal images. Although the importance of texture gradient cues in the process of 3D vision has been pointed out, most studies concentrate on the neural process based on binocular disparity. We report the(More)
We examined the relations between the steady-state frequency of discharge of cells in the arm area of the motor cortex of the monkey and the direction and magnitude of the three-dimensional static force exerted by the arm on an isometric manipulandum. Data were analyzed from two monkeys (n=188 cells) using stepwise multiple linear regression. In 154 of 188(More)
In the first part of this article, we review our neurophysiological studies of the hand-manipulation-related neurons in the anterior part of the lateral bank of the intraparietal sulcus (area AIP) . We describe the properties of visually responsive neurons in area AIP. Object-type visual-dominant neurons responded to the sight of objects and showed(More)
Linkage between the prefrontal cortex and the primary motor cortex is mediated by nonprimary motor-related areas of the frontal lobe. In an attempt to analyse the organization of the prefrontal outflow from area 46 toward the frontal motor-related areas, we investigated the pattern of projections involving the higher-order motor-related areas, such as the(More)
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether neurons in the caudolateral part of the intraparietal sulcus (area CIP), a part of the posterior parietal cortex, contribute to short-term memory and perceptual decision of three-dimensional (3D) surface orientation, in addition to its purely visual nature of responding selectively to 3D surface(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine brain areas involved in simple arithmetic, and to compare these areas between adults and children. Eight children (four girls and four boys; age, 9-14 years) and eight adults (four women and four men; age, 40-49 years) were subjected to this study. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed during(More)