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A goal in visual neuroscience is to reveal how the visual system reconstructs the three-dimensional (3D) representation of the world from two-dimensional retinal images. Although the importance of texture gradient cues in the process of 3D vision has been pointed out, most studies concentrate on the neural process based on binocular disparity. We report the(More)
In order to separate the cognitive processes associated with phonological encoding and the use of a visual word form lexicon in reading, it is desirable to compare the processing of words presented in a visually familiar form with words in a visually unfamiliar form. Japanese Kana orthography offers this possibility. Two phonologically equivalent but(More)
It has been empirically established that the cerebral cortical areas defined by Brodmann one hundred years ago solely on the basis of cellular organization are closely correlated to their function, such as sensation, association, and motion. Cytoarchitectonically distinct cortical areas have different densities and types of neurons. Thus, signaling patterns(More)
We examined the relations between the steady-state frequency of discharge of cells in the arm area of the motor cortex of the monkey and the direction and magnitude of the three-dimensional static force exerted by the arm on an isometric manipulandum. Data were analyzed from two monkeys (n=188 cells) using stepwise multiple linear regression. In 154 of 188(More)
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether neurons in the caudolateral part of the intraparietal sulcus (area CIP), a part of the posterior parietal cortex, contribute to short-term memory and perceptual decision of three-dimensional (3D) surface orientation, in addition to its purely visual nature of responding selectively to 3D surface(More)
Concealed information, which is information only known to oneself is sometimes crucial for criminal investigation. In this study, we examined cortical activations related to incidental responses to concealed information. We found that cortical responses to stimuli related to concealed information were different from those to other stimuli; the bilateral(More)
Two rhesus monkeys were trained to move a handle on a two-dimensional (2D) working surface in directions specified by a light at the plane. They first captured with the handle a light on the center of the plane and then moved the handle in the direction indicated by a peripheral light (cue signal). The signal to move (go signal) was given by turning off the(More)
Reward and punishment have opposite affective value but are both processed by the cingulate cortex. However, it is unclear whether the positive and negative affective values of monetary reward and punishment are processed by separate or common subregions of the cingulate cortex. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using a free-choice(More)
In this article we address the major issue of space vision, how the brain represents the 3D shape of objects in the real world, on the basis of psychophysics and neurophysiology. In psychophysics, Gibson found texture gradients and width gradients, as well as the gradient of binocular disparity, as the major cues for surface orientation in depth. Marr(More)
Two monkeys were trained to make an arm movement with an orthogonal bend, first up and then to the left (⌝), following a waiting period. They held a two-dimensional manipulandum over a spot of light at the center of a planar working surface. When this light went off, the animals were required to hold the manipulandum there for 600–700 ms and then move the(More)