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A common point of reference is needed to describe the three-dimensional arrangements of bases and base pairs in nucleic acid structures. The different standards used in computer programs created for this purpose give rise to conflicting interpretations of the same structure [1]. For example, parts of a structure, which appear "normal" according to one(More)
—This paper presents a precise system for handwritten Chinese and Japanese character recognition. Before extracting directional element feature (DEF) from each character image, transformation based on partial inclination detection (TPID) is used to reduce undesired effects of degraded images. In the recognition process, city block distance with deviation(More)
Introduction Over 35 years have passed since the 'central dogma' of molecular biology (DNA makes RNA makes protein) was proposed (Crick, 1958). Despite its remarkable verification, it is being seen increasingly as limited, for if the whole flow of information in a cell were unidirectional, all cells with the same complement of genetic material would have(More)
Redoing has been introduced as a fundamental mechanism to handle the dynamics and flexibility required in the software process. It is an operation to cancel a part of a process enaction that is polluted by erroneous and incomplete activities and do that part again. In order to make redoing effective, it is essential to detect the cause of errors correctly.(More)
DNA-recognition rules for Zn fingers are discussed in terms of crystal structures. The rules can explain the DNA-binding characteristics of a number of Zn finger proteins for which there are no crystal structures. The rules have two parts: chemical rules, which list the possible pairings between the 4 DNA bases and the 20 amino acid residues, and(More)
The way helix-turn-helix proteins recognize DNA is analysed by comparing their sequences, structures, and binding specificities. Individual recognition helices in these proteins bind to four DNA base pairs with the same geometry. However, pairs of recognition helices in the protein dimers can have different separations and orientations. These differences(More)
Programs constructed using techniques that allow software or operational faults to be tolerated are typically written using an imperative computational model. Here, an alternative is described in which such programs are written using an attribute and functional based model called FTAG. The basic model is introduced first, followed by a description of(More)
We present a replication technique based on FTAG computation model where instances of a replicated application are active on different group of processors called replicas. FTAG (Fault Tolerant Attribute Grammar) is a functional and attribute based model [15]. The developed replication technique implements " active parallel replication " , –that is, all(More)