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—This paper presents a precise system for handwritten Chinese and Japanese character recognition. Before extracting directional element feature (DEF) from each character image, transformation based on partial inclination detection (TPID) is used to reduce undesired effects of degraded images. In the recognition process, city block distance with deviation(More)
Shigella use a special mechanism to invade epithelial cells called 'the trigger mechanism of entry', which allows epithelial cells to trap several bacteria simultaneously. On contact, Shigella deliver effectors into epithelial cells through the type III secretion system. Here, we show that one of the effectors, IpgB1, has a pivotal role in producing(More)
Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, is capable of inducing the large scale membrane ruffling required for the bacterial invasion of host cells. Shigella secrete a subset of effectors via the type III secretion system (TTSS) into the host cells to induce membrane ruffling. Here, we show that IpgB1 is secreted via the TTSS into epithelial(More)
The cellular surveillance-activated detoxification and defenses (cSADD) theory postulates the presence of host surveillance mechanisms that monitor the integrity of common cellular processes and components targeted by pathogen effectors. Being organelles essential for multiple cellular processes, including innate immune responses, mitochondria represent an(More)
Some pathogenic bacteria actually invade the cytoplasm of their target host cells. Invasive bacteria acquire the propulsive force to move by recruiting actin and inducing its polymerization. Here we show that Shigella movement within the cytoplasm was severely hindered by microtubules and that the bacteria destroyed surrounding microtubules by secreting(More)
CagA protein is a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori, which is delivered into gastric epithelial cells and elicits growth factor-like responses. Once within the cells, CagA is tyrosine phosphorylated by Src family kinases and targets host proteins required to induce the cell responses. We show that the phosphorylated CagA binds Crk adaptor(More)
PURPOSE The aim of the study is to suppress the progress of estrogen-dependent breast cancer by inhibiting the membrane transporter, which mediates the internalization of estrone-3-sulfate as estrogen precursor in the cancer cells. METHODS The uptake of estrone-3-sulfate by estrogen-dependent breast cancer MCF-7 cells was measured, and inhibitory study(More)
Vibrio cholerae, a Gram-negative facultative pathogen, is the etiologic agent for the diarrheal disease cholera. We previously characterized a clinical isolate, AM-19226, that translocates a type III secretion system (T3SS) effector protein with actin-nucleating activity, VopF, into the host cells. From comparative genomic studies, we identified a divergent(More)
When nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) sense cytosolic-invading bacteria, they induce the formation of inflammasomes and initiate an innate immune response. In quiescent cells, inflammasome activity is tightly regulated to prevent excess inflammation and cell death. Many bacterial pathogens provoke inflammasome activity and(More)