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Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling in a variety of cell types. MD-2 is associated with the extracellular domain of TLR4 and augments TLR4-dependent LPS responses in vitro. We show here that MD-2(-/-) mice do not respond to LPS, do survive endotoxic shock but are susceptible to Salmonella typhimurium infection. We found(More)
BACKGROUND Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) has been implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. However, its role in vivo remains to be determined. RESULTS Here we show that the targeted disruption of the mouse ERK2 gene results in embryonic lethality by E11.5 and severe abnormality of the placenta. In these animals,(More)
Stress causes hypocalcemia and ulcerogenesis in rats. In rats under stressful conditions, a rapid and transient increase in circulating prolactin (PRL) is observed, and this enhanced PRL induces PRL receptors (PRLR) in the choroid plexus of rat brain. In this study we used restraint stress in water to elucidate the mechanism by which PRLR in the rat brain(More)
The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; also known as ERKs) are key intracellular signaling molecules that are ubiquitously expressed in tissues and were assumed to be functionally equivalent. Here, we use the mouse lens as a model system to investigate whether MAPK1 plays a specific role during development. MAPK3 is known to be dispensable for lens(More)
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) increases the content and mRNA level of insulin in a mouse beta-cell line, MIN6, and primary-cultured mouse islets. We examined the mechanism of PTHrP-induced insulin expression. The PTHrP effect was markedly augmented by SB203580, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitor, and SB203580 itself increased(More)
Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor, stimulates GH secretion. The ghrelin gene is expressed most abundantly in stomach. The mRNA is also detected in other tissues and cell lines. However, the mechanism of the transcriptional regulation of the ghrelin gene has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we have(More)
Under acute stress conditions in the rat, there is rapid and transient increase in circulating prolactin (PRL). This leads to an elevated expression of the long form of PRLR (PRLR-L) first in the hypothalamus and the choroid plexus. This increase in PRL is involved in the inhibition of stress-induced hypocalcemia and gastric erosion. In this study we used(More)
Lipid rafts are known to aggregate in response to various stimuli. By way of raft aggregation after stimulation, signaling molecules in rafts accumulate and interact so that the signal received at a given membrane receptor is amplified efficiently from the site of aggregation. To elucidate the process of lipid raft aggregation during T cell activation, we(More)
Differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into Th2 cells requires protein expression of GATA3. Interleukin-4 induces STAT6 activation and subsequent GATA3 transcription. Little is known, however, on how T cell receptor-mediated signaling regulates GATA3 and Th2 cell differentiation. Here we demonstrated that T cell receptor-mediated activation of the Ras-ERK(More)
The aim of this study was to determine whether sesamin, a component from Acanthopanax senticosus HARMS (ASH) pharmacologically offers protection against Parkinson's disease (PD) and its related depressive behavior in rats administered rotenone. We also examined how sesamin affected the rotenone-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or glial cell(More)