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UNLABELLED In 1995, the Japan Diabetes Society (JDS) appointed the Committee for the Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus. The Committee presented a final report in May 1999 in Japanese. This is the English version with minor modifications for readers outside Japan. CONCEPT OF DIABETES MELLITUS Diabetes mellitus represents a group of diseases(More)
In 1999, the Japan Diabetes Society (JDS) launched the previous version of the diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus, in which JDS took initiative in adopting glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c) as an adjunct to the diagnosis of diabetes. In contrast, in 2009 the International Expert Committee composed of the members of the American Diabetes Association (ADA)(More)
Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial pathogen that invades cultured nonphagocytic cells. Inhibitors and a dominant negative mutation were used to demonstrate that efficient entry requires the phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase p85alpha-p110. Infection with L. monocytogenes caused rapid increases in cellular amounts of PI(3, 4)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3, indicating(More)
Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, was recently identified in the rat stomach. Previous studies have shown that ghrelin potently increases growth hormone release and food intake. We examined the effects of the gastric peptide ghrelin on anxiety-like behavior in association with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis(More)
BACKGROUND There is substantial evidence that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) is a critical component of signalling pathways used by the cell-surface receptors for a variety of mammalian growth factors and other hormones. The physiological product of this enzyme is a highly polar membrane lipid called phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate This(More)
Cultured human lymphocytes and rat hepatoma cells were labeled with [32P]orthophosphate and the insulin receptor subunits identified by immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoreses. In both cell types the 95,000-dalton (beta) subunit of the insulin receptor was selectively phosphorylated. Phosphorylation was specifically stimulated by(More)
Neuropeptides in the hypothalamus play a pivotal role in the regulation of energy balance. Agouti-related protein (AGRP), orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) have been identified in the hypothalamus as orexigenic peptides. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of AGRP, orexin and MCH on oxygen consumption. Oxygen consumption was(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are defined as cells that undergo sustained in vitro growth and are able to give rise to multiple mesenchymal lineages. Although MSCs are already used in regenerative medicine little is known about their in vivo behavior and developmental derivation. Here, we show that the earliest wave of MSC in the embryonic trunk is(More)
In the present study, the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) NPY, [Leu31, Pro34]NPY and NPY13-36 have been evaluated with respect to anxiety in mice in the elevated plus maze. NPY had opposing effects on behavior, depending on the doses used. NPY decreased the normal preference for the closed arms of the maze at 0.7 nmol, indicating an anxiolytic(More)