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Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor signaling through the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase is crucial for ureteric bud branching morphogenesis during kidney development, yet few of the downstream genes are known. Here we show that the ETS transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5 are positively regulated by Ret signaling in the ureteric bud tips. Mice lacking(More)
Extracellular nucleotides, including ATP, have been demonstrated to transmit important physiological signals in the brain through either G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors or P2X receptors, which are ligand-gated ion channels. In this study, we performed a detailed analysis of the expression of the Gi/o-coupled receptor P2Y12 in the brain. Northern blot(More)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common liver diseases. L-tryptophan and its metabolite serotonin are involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unclear whether L-tryptophan promotes hepatic steatosis. To explore this issue, we examined the role of L-tryptophan in mouse hepatic steatosis by using a high fat and(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which is a mediator of hepatotoxicity, has been implicated in liver fibrosis. However, the roles of TNF-α on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and liver fibrosis are complicated and remain controversial. To explore this issue, the role of TNF-α in cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis was examined by comparing between(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), the L-tryptophan-degrading enzyme, plays a key role in the immunomodulatory effects on several types of immune cells. Originally known for its regulatory function during pregnancy and chronic inflammation in tumorigenesis, the activity of IDO1 seems to modify the inflammatory state of infectious diseases. The(More)
Secondary bacterial infection in humans is one of the pathological conditions requiring clinical attention. In this study, we examined the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infected mice. All mice inoculated with EMCV at 5 days before LPS challenge died within 24 h. LPS-induced TNF-α mRNA expression was significantly(More)
Podocyte injury has been suggested to have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of diabetic glomerulopathy. To glean insights into molecular mechanisms underlying diabetic podocyte injury, we generated temporal global gene transcript profiles of podocytes exposed to high glucose for a time interval of 1 or 2 weeks using microarrays. A number of genes were(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that degrades the essential amino acid l-tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway, exerts immunomodulatory effects in a number of diseases. IDO expression is increased in tumor tissue and in draining lymph nodes; this increase is thought to play a role in tumor evasion by suppressing the immune response. A(More)
Single-cell genomics will enable studies of the earliest events in kidney development, although it is unclear if existing technologies are mature enough to generate accurate and reproducible data on kidney progenitors. Here we designed a pilot study to validate a high-throughput assay to measure the expression levels of key regulators of kidney development(More)
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