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Extracellular nucleotides, including ATP, have been demonstrated to transmit important physiological signals in the brain through either G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors or P2X receptors, which are ligand-gated ion channels. In this study, we performed a detailed analysis of the expression of the Gi/o-coupled receptor P2Y12 in the brain. Northern blot(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor signaling through the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase is crucial for ureteric bud branching morphogenesis during kidney development, yet few of the downstream genes are known. Here we show that the ETS transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5 are positively regulated by Ret signaling in the ureteric bud tips. Mice lacking(More)
The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and consequent depletion of striatal dopamine are known to underlie the motor deficits observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Adaptive changes in dopaminergic terminals and in postsynaptic striatal neurons can compensate for significant losses of striatal dopamine, resulting in(More)
Small unmyelinated sensory neurons classified as nociceptors are divided into two subpopulations based on phenotypic differences, including expression of neurotrophic factor receptors. Approximately half of unmyelinated nociceptors express the NGF receptor TrkA, and half express the GDNF family ligand (GFL) receptor Ret. The function of NGF/TrkA signaling(More)
Cellular crescents are typically inflammatory and associated with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Their pathogenesis involves glomerular basement membrane rupture due to circulating or intrinsic factors. Crescents associated with diabetic glomerulosclerosis are rarely reported. Furthermore, the nature of cells forming crescents in diabetes is(More)
Congenital anomalies of the kidneys or lower urinary tract (CAKUT) encompass a spectrum of anomalies that result from aberrations in spatio-temporal regulation of genetic, epigenetic, environmental, and molecular signals at key stages of urinary tract development. The Rearranged in Transfection (RET) tyrosine kinase signaling system is a major pathway(More)
A new procedure for the preparation of methyl esters from free fatty acids under mild conditions was investigated. Free fatty acids are dissolved in a mixture of chloroform-methanolic HCl-cupric acetate and kept at room temperature for 30 min for complete esterification. The method is suitable for esterification of long-chain acids, such as 18:0, and for(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) exerts immunomodulatory effects due to enzymatic activities catalyzing the essential amino acid L-tryptophan. IDO activity might play an important role in regulating immune responses exerted by antigen-presenting cells as a potent tool to help escape from assault by the immune system. In this study, we performed(More)
The escape of preneoplastic cells from the immune system, which is caused by immune tolerance, occurs during the development of several types of tumors. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) plays a critical role in the induction of immune tolerance. In the present study we investigated the effects of 1-methyltryptophan (1-MT), an IDO inhibitor, and(More)
IDO converts tryptophan to l-kynurenine, and it is noted as a relevant molecule in promoting tolerance and suppressing adaptive immunity. In this study, we examined the effect of IDO in α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer)-induced hepatitis. The increase in IDO expression in the liver of wild-type (WT) mice administered α-GalCer was confirmed by real-time PCR,(More)