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Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor signaling through the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase is crucial for ureteric bud branching morphogenesis during kidney development, yet few of the downstream genes are known. Here we show that the ETS transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5 are positively regulated by Ret signaling in the ureteric bud tips. Mice lacking(More)
Extracellular nucleotides, including ATP, have been demonstrated to transmit important physiological signals in the brain through either G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors or P2X receptors, which are ligand-gated ion channels. In this study, we performed a detailed analysis of the expression of the Gi/o-coupled receptor P2Y12 in the brain. Northern blot(More)
The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and consequent depletion of striatal dopamine are known to underlie the motor deficits observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Adaptive changes in dopaminergic terminals and in postsynaptic striatal neurons can compensate for significant losses of striatal dopamine, resulting in(More)
Small unmyelinated sensory neurons classified as nociceptors are divided into two subpopulations based on phenotypic differences, including expression of neurotrophic factor receptors. Approximately half of unmyelinated nociceptors express the NGF receptor TrkA, and half express the GDNF family ligand (GFL) receptor Ret. The function of NGF/TrkA signaling(More)
The receptor tyrosine kinase ret protooncogene (RET) is implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases and in several developmental defects, particularly those in neural crest-derived structures and the genitourinary system. In order to further elucidate RET-mediated mechanisms that contribute to these diseases and decipher the basis for specificity in(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway that converts L-tryptophan to L-kynurenine. Transient forebrain ischemia initiates a series of cellular events that lead to the delayed neuronal degeneration of several brain regions. The goal of this study was to determine the localization of IDO in gerbil brain, and(More)
Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), which catabolizes L-tryptophan (L-TRP) to L-kynurenine (L-KYN), is an immunoregulatory factor that is up-regulated via an interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-dependent and/or -independent mechanism. In this study, we investigated the localization of IDO and whether induction of IDO expression is an IFN-gamma-dependent and/or(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) catabolizes tryptophan to kynurenine at the first step of tryptophan metabolism. Recently, in addition to IDO1, a new isoform called IDO2 was identified. In this study, we examined the tissue expression pattern of IDO2 mRNA and the cellular localization of expressed IDO2 protein in mice. IDO1 mRNA expression was observed(More)
Signaling by the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-RET receptor tyrosine kinase and SPRY1, a RET repressor, is essential for early urinary tract development. Individual or a combination of GDNF, RET and SPRY1 mutant alleles in mice cause renal malformations reminiscent of congenital anomalies of the kidney or urinary tract (CAKUT) in humans(More)
Mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase RET are associated with congenital anomalies of kidneys or urinary tract (CAKUT). RET tyrosine Y1015 is the docking site for PLCγ, a major regulator of RET signaling. Abrogating signaling via Y1015 causes CAKUT that are markedly different than renal agenesis in Ret-null or RetY1062F mutant mice. We performed(More)