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Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor signaling through the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase is crucial for ureteric bud branching morphogenesis during kidney development, yet few of the downstream genes are known. Here we show that the ETS transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5 are positively regulated by Ret signaling in the ureteric bud tips. Mice lacking(More)
Extracellular nucleotides, including ATP, have been demonstrated to transmit important physiological signals in the brain through either G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors or P2X receptors, which are ligand-gated ion channels. In this study, we performed a detailed analysis of the expression of the Gi/o-coupled receptor P2Y12 in the brain. Northern blot(More)
The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and consequent depletion of striatal dopamine are known to underlie the motor deficits observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Adaptive changes in dopaminergic terminals and in postsynaptic striatal neurons can compensate for significant losses of striatal dopamine, resulting in(More)
A complete loss of Purkinje cell (PC) input leads to an increase in expression of the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (Parv) in neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) of PC degeneration (pcd) mutants. To verify this apparent dependence of Parv expression on PC input in the DCN, the patterns of expression in five other cerebellar mutants (weaver,(More)
Small unmyelinated sensory neurons classified as nociceptors are divided into two subpopulations based on phenotypic differences, including expression of neurotrophic factor receptors. Approximately half of unmyelinated nociceptors express the NGF receptor TrkA, and half express the GDNF family ligand (GFL) receptor Ret. The function of NGF/TrkA signaling(More)
Galectin-3 is a β-galactosidase-binding lectin which is important in cell proliferation and apoptotic regulation. Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), which includes the Enterovirus genus, can cause not only acute myocarditis but also neuronal degeneration of central nervous system in various animals including mice. The pathophysiological role of galectin-3(More)
Maturation of the starfish oocyte cortex to produce an effective cortical granule reaction and fertilisation envelope is believed to develop in three phases: (1) pre-methyladenine (1-MA) stimulation; (2) post-1-MA stimulation, pregerminal vesicle breakdown; and (3) post-germinal vesicle breakdown. The present study was initiated to identify what each of(More)
The receptor tyrosine kinase ret protooncogene (RET) is implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases and in several developmental defects, particularly those in neural crest-derived structures and the genitourinary system. In order to further elucidate RET-mediated mechanisms that contribute to these diseases and decipher the basis for specificity in(More)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common liver diseases. L-tryptophan and its metabolite serotonin are involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unclear whether L-tryptophan promotes hepatic steatosis. To explore this issue, we examined the role of L-tryptophan in mouse hepatic steatosis by using a high fat and(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), the L-tryptophan-degrading enzyme, plays a key role in the immunomodulatory effects on several types of immune cells. Originally known for its regulatory function during pregnancy and chronic inflammation in tumorigenesis, the activity of IDO1 seems to modify the inflammatory state of infectious diseases. The(More)