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The basic helix-loop-helix genes Math3 and NeuroD are expressed by differentiating amacrine cells, retinal interneurons. Previous studies have demonstrated that a normal number of amacrine cells is generated in mice lacking either Math3 or NEUROD: We have found that, in Math3-NeuroD double-mutant retina, amacrine cells are completely missing, while ganglion(More)
Neurons and glial cells differentiate from common precursors. Whereas the gene glial cells missing (gcm) determines the glial fate in Drosophila, current data about the expression patterns suggest that, in mammals, gcm homologues are unlikely to regulate gliogenesis. Here, we found that, in mouse retina, the bHLH gene Hes5 was specifically expressed by(More)
OBJECTIVE The intra-arterial infusion of papaverine has been used for dilation of spastic cerebral vessels after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, although its efficacy is controversial. Milrinone is an inotropic drug that dilates vessels by phosphodiesterase inhibition in a mechanism similar to that of papaverine. We examined the effects of(More)
The aim of this study was to establish a cellular system to investigate the requirement for cell surface and diffusible molecules in the differentiation of fetal mesencephalic cells toward the dopamine lineage. Toward this end, we immortalized rat embryonic day 14 (E14) mesencephalon with a regulatable retroviral vector encoding v-myc. The stably transduced(More)
OBJECT Prominent features of moyamoya disease are intimal thickening of the cerebral arterial trunks and abundant angiogenesis for collateral blood supplies, but its pathogenesis is still unknown. The aim of this study was to test the possibility that transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta1) may play a role in the pathogenesis of moyamoya disease. (More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the retinal environment and retinoic acid (RA) pretreatment on the differentiation of transplanted adult rat hippocampus-derived neural stem cells (AHSCs). AHSCs were transplanted into embryonic (E18) or neonatal (P6) rat retinal explants and the mixture was cultured for 2 weeks. Other AHSCs were(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE In the treatment of carotid atherosclerosis, the rate of stenosis and characteristics of plaque should be assessed to diagnose vulnerable plaques that increase the risk for cerebral infarction. We performed carotid black-blood (BB) MR imaging to diagnose plaque components and assess plaque hardness based on MR signals. MATERIALS AND(More)
The preventative effect of cisternal irrigation with milrinone against vasospasm was evaluated in 12 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) of World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade IV or V treated between September 1999 and September 2000. All aneurysms were clipped or embolized within 72 hours of the onset of SAH. Inlet and outlet tubes(More)
Conditionally immortalized neuronal progenitor cell line HC2S2 differentiates into mature neurons after suppression of the v-myc expression with tetracycline. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses were used to measure expression levels of N-metyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 (NMDAR1) mRNAs encoding splice variants (NMDAR1a, -exon 5;(More)
The vascular system is the first organ to form in the developing mammalian embryo. The Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanism essential for proper embryonic development in almost all vertebrate organs. The analysis of targeted mouse mutants has demonstrated essential roles of the Notch signaling pathway in embryonic(More)