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The K+ Cl- cotransporter KCC2 plays an important role in chloride homeostasis and in neuronal responses mediated by ionotropic GABA and glycine receptors. The expression levels of KCC2 in neurons determine whether neurotransmitter responses are inhibitory or excitatory. KCC2 expression is decreased in developing neurons, as well as in response to various(More)
It has been reported that inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6), phytic acid), a natural product, has an anticancer role. However, there is inadequate information regarding the mechanism by which InsP(6) exerts anticancer actions, and the effect requires relatively high concentration of the agent, both of which hinders the usage of InsP(6) as an anticancer(More)
The dual specificity phosphatase CDC25B positively controls the G2-M transition by activating CDK1/cyclin B. The binding of 14-3-3 to CDC25B has been shown to regulate the subcellular redistribution of CDC25B from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and may be correlated with the G2 checkpoint. We used a FLAG-tagged version of CDC25B to study the differences among(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) can be associated with several proteins in cell. We analyzed the immunoprecipitates by an anti-GSK-3beta antibody from cell lysate of human fibroblasts and found that this protein was co-precipitated with mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1/2). U0126, a MEK1/2 inhibitor, inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulates several distinct aspects of synaptic transmission, including GABAergic transmission. Exposure to BDNF alters properties of GABA(A) receptors and induces changes in the expression level at the cell surface. Although phospholipase C-related inactive protein-1 (PRIP-1) plays an important role in GABA(A)(More)
Microtubule-associated protein (MAP) light chain 3 (LC3) is a human homologue of yeast Apg8/Aut7/Cvt5 (Atg8), which is essential for autophagy. MAP-LC3 is cleaved by a cysteine protease to produce LC3-I, which is located in cytosolic fraction. LC3-I, in turn, is converted to LC3-II through the actions of E1- and E2-like enzymes. LC3-II is covalently(More)
The uncarboxylated form (ucOC), but not the γ-carboxylated form (GlaOC), of the bone-derived protein osteocalcin stimulates insulin secretion and regulates energy metabolism in insulin target tissues. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an insulin secretagogue that is released from the gut in response to food intake. We have now found that Gprc6a, a putative(More)
We investigated actions of uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) in rat aorta, cerebral and mesenteric arteries, and their single myocytes. UTP (≥10 µM) elicited an inward-rectifying current strongly reminiscent of activation of P2X(1) receptor, and a similar current was also induced by α,β-methylene adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) (≥100 nM). UTP desensitized(More)
The number of postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors is a fundamental determinant of the variability of inhibitory synaptic responses in the central nervous system. In rat visual cortex, [3H]SR-95531 binding assays revealed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), one of the neurotrophins, induced a rapid increase in the total(More)
The phox homology (PX) domain is a phosphoinositide-binding module that typically binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Out of 47 mammalian proteins containing PX domains, more than 30 are denoted sorting nexins and several of these have been implicated in internalization of cell surface proteins to the endosome, where phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate is(More)