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The non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) of some hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates has been implicated in the inhibition of the antiviral activity of interferon (IFN). In the present study, the possible inhibitory effects of NS5A from two isolates of HCV subtype 1b, HCV-1bJk and M094AJk, and their chimeric form on the antiviral activity of IFN were examined.(More)
We investigated the characteristics of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced impairment of learning and memory using an 8-arm radial maze task, a water maze, a visual discrimination task with 2 figures and a passive avoidance test in rats. THC (6 mg/kg, i.p.) impaired spatial memory in the standard task of the 8-arm radial maze. THC (4-6 mg/kg, i.p.)(More)
Single neuron activities responding to peripheral stimuli with short latencies were recorded within the thalamic nucleus ventralis posterolateralis (VPL) after transection of the spinothalamic tract (STT) in the cat under alpha-chloralose anesthesia. The VPL neurons showed spontaneous and evoked hyperactivity after STT transection, which was revealed at 1-2(More)
In the mammalian cochlea, both the sensory cells-called hair cells (HCs)-and nonsensory cells such as supporting cells (SCs) and mesenchymal cells participate in proper auditory function through the expression of various functional molecules. During development, expression of certain genes is repressed through genomic methylation, one of the major(More)
Various factors that are important for proper hearing have been identified, including serum levels of zinc. Here we investigated whether epigenetic regulatory pathways, which can be modified by environmental factors, could modulate hearing. RT-PCR detected expression of genes encoding DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase (Hdac) in the postnatal as(More)
In order to clarify the mechanism by which pGlu-Asn-Cys(Cys)-Pro-Arg-Gly-NH(2) (vasopressin-(4-9)), a major metabolite C-terminal fragment of [Arg(8)]-vasopressin (vasopressin-(1-9)), improves learning and memory, we used several different drugs such as an acetylcholine receptor antagonist, a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor,(More)
The contribution of Cl(-) conductance relative to that of K(+) in the regulation of membrane potential was examined using OUMS-27 cells, a model cell-line of human chondrocytes. Application of 100 microM niflumic acid (NFA) and other anion-channel blockers induced significant membrane hyperpolarization. The NFA-sensitive membrane current under voltage-clamp(More)
CD44 is a receptor for hyaluronan and mediates signaling that regulates complex cell behavior including cancer cell migration and invasion. Shedding of the extracellular portion of CD44 is the last step in the regulation of the molecule-releasing interaction between the ligand and cell. However, highly glycosylated forms of CD44 have hampered the(More)
YM992, (S)-2-[[(7-fluoro-4-indanyl)oxy]methyl]morpholine monohydrochloride, exhibited the biochemical profile of a selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with 5-HT2A receptor antagonistic activity. YM922 showed the same high affinity as fluoxetine against the 5-HT reuptake site (Ki = 21 nM) and a similar affinity to that of crazodone against(More)
YM992 ((S)-2-[[(7-fluoro-4-indanyl)oxy]methyl]morpholine monohydrochloride) is a novel compound that has selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) re-uptake inhibition and 5-HT2A receptor antagonistic activity in vivo. YM992, fluoxetine and citalopram showed 5-HT uptake inhibition activity in l-5-hydroxy-tryptophan (l-5-HTP)-treated mice. YM992 and(More)