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The non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) of some hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates has been implicated in the inhibition of the antiviral activity of interferon (IFN). In the present study, the possible inhibitory effects of NS5A from two isolates of HCV subtype 1b, HCV-1bJk and M094AJk, and their chimeric form on the antiviral activity of IFN were examined.(More)
Single neuron activities responding to peripheral stimuli with short latencies were recorded within the thalamic nucleus ventralis posterolateralis (VPL) after transection of the spinothalamic tract (STT) in the cat under alpha-chloralose anesthesia. The VPL neurons showed spontaneous and evoked hyperactivity after STT transection, which was revealed at 1-2(More)
In the mammalian cochlea, both the sensory cells-called hair cells (HCs)-and nonsensory cells such as supporting cells (SCs) and mesenchymal cells participate in proper auditory function through the expression of various functional molecules. During development, expression of certain genes is repressed through genomic methylation, one of the major(More)
Various factors that are important for proper hearing have been identified, including serum levels of zinc. Here we investigated whether epigenetic regulatory pathways, which can be modified by environmental factors, could modulate hearing. RT-PCR detected expression of genes encoding DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase (Hdac) in the postnatal as(More)
CD44 is a receptor for hyaluronan and mediates signaling that regulates complex cell behavior including cancer cell migration and invasion. Shedding of the extracellular portion of CD44 is the last step in the regulation of the molecule-releasing interaction between the ligand and cell. However, highly glycosylated forms of CD44 have hampered the(More)
The contribution of Cl(-) conductance relative to that of K(+) in the regulation of membrane potential was examined using OUMS-27 cells, a model cell-line of human chondrocytes. Application of 100 microM niflumic acid (NFA) and other anion-channel blockers induced significant membrane hyperpolarization. The NFA-sensitive membrane current under voltage-clamp(More)
Although EGFR is expressed at high levels in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) and mutations are extremely rare, monotherapy with EGFR inhibitors has shown limited success. The PI3kinase/Akt pathway is responsible for cellular survival, and inhibition of phosphatidylinositol (PI) synthesis has antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and(More)
BACKGROUND The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) accompanied by the downregulation of E-cadherin has been thought to promote metastasis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is presumed to contribute to cancer progression through its multifaceted function, and recently its inverse relationship with E-cadherin was suggested. The aim of the present study was to(More)
We recently showed that acute energy failure in the rat cochlea induced by local administration of the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) causes hearing loss mainly due to degeneration of cochlear lateral-wall fibrocytes. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of the pan-caspase inhibitor z-Val-Ala-Asp(Ome)-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK)(More)
Acute mitochondrial dysfunction in the cochlea is likely to result in hearing loss as a consequence of local energy shortage, similar to ischemia- or noise-induced hearing loss. To establish an animal model of acute cochlear mitochondrial dysfunction, we applied a mitochondrial toxin, 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) in the rat cochlea. Rats treated with 500mM(More)