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A novel and convenient method was established for the prediction of in vivo metabolic clearance in human liver. The present method applied the in vitro-in vivo extrapolation paradigm previously established in rats to the in vitro data obtained from cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Predicted hepatic availability and clearance were compared with the reported(More)
Two different cellular assay models were assessed as in vitro systems for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate identification: cellular accumulation studies with KB-V1, a human MDR1 P-gp-overexpressing multidrug-resistant human epidermoid carcinoma cell line; and transcellular transport studies with L-MDR1 (or L-mdr1a), a human MDR1 (or mouse mdr1a)-transfected(More)
The in vivo metabolic clearance in human has been successfully predicted by using in vitro data of metabolic stability in cryopreserved preparations of human hepatocytes. In the predictions by human hepatocytes, the systematic underpredictions of in vivo clearance have been commonly observed among different datasets. The regression-based scaling factor for(More)
Indinavir, a potent and specific inhibitor of HIV protease, is a known substrate of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A and p-glycoprotein. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the inducing effect of dexamethasone (DEX) on CYP3A and p-glycoprotein in the hepatic and intestinal first-pass metabolism of indinavir in rats. Pretreatment of rats with(More)
MK-639 (L-735,524) is a potent human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor under investigation in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Five in vitro approaches have been used to identify the cytochrome P450 isoform(s) responsible for the human microsomal oxidative metabolism of MK-639. These approaches are: 1) chemical inhibition; 2)(More)
The ratio of drug levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to plasma (CSF/plasma) at equilibrium has been viewed as in vivo free fraction (fp) in plasma [CSF/plasma = fp], if no active transport is involved in brain penetration. We determined the CSF/plasma level following oral administration in rats and in vitro rat plasma protein binding for 20 compounds that(More)
Caco-2 cells grown in the presence of 1alpha,25-di-OH vitamin D(3) (di-OH vit D(3)) were used as a model to evaluate the effects of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) efflux on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of indinavir during intestinal absorption. Caco-2 cells grown under these conditions demonstrated significant CYP3A4 activity and maintained Pgp-mediated directional(More)
The metabolism of indinavir, a human immune deficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor, has been characterized extensively in rats and humans. All oxidative metabolites found in vivo were formed when indinavir was incubated with NADPH-fortified hepatic and intestinal microsomes obtained from rats and humans. In vitro kinetic studies revealed that Vmax/Km(More)
Indinavir, a potent and specific inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus protease, is undergoing clinical investigation for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The studies described herein were designed to characterize the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the drug in rats, dogs, and monkeys. Indinavir exhibited(More)