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Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) mediated quorum sensing has been associated with the expression of virulence factors in a number of pathogenic organisms and has been demonstrated to play a role in motility and cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) production in Campylobacter jejuni. We have initiated the work to determine the molecular basis of AI-2 synthesis and the(More)
CmeABC, a resistance-nodulation-division (RND) type of efflux pump, contributes to Campylobacter resistance to a broad spectrum of antimicrobial agents and is also essential for Campylobacter colonization of the animal intestinal tract by mediation of bile resistance. As one of the main systems for Campylobacter adaptation to different environments, CmeABC(More)
The polycystic kidney disease 1-like 3 (PKD1L3) and polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 (PKD2L1) proteins have been proposed to form heteromers that function as sour taste receptors in mammals. Here, we show that PKD1L3 and PKD2L1 interact through their transmembrane domains, and not through the coiled-coil domain, by coimmunoprecipitation experiments using(More)
Fluoroquinolone resistance can cause major clinical problems. Here, we investigated fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in a clinical Escherichia coli isolate, HUE1, which had no mutations quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. HUE1 demonstrated MICs that exceeded the breakpoints for ciprofloxacin,(More)
To the Editor: Shiga toxin-producing Escheri-chia coli (STEC) O157:H7 has become a major meat safety issue worldwide. Cattle, an important reservoir of human infection (1), may not be the only source of this organism (2,3). In a survey of pigs in England (4), non-STEC O157 was isolated from four (0.4%) fecal samples collected (after slaughter) from 1,000(More)
In the present study, we have shown that virulence-resistance plasmids from emerging multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were derived from a virulence-associated plasmid, essential for systematic invasiveness of S. Typhimurium in mice (pSLT), through acquisition of a large insert containing a resistance island flanked by(More)
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (S. 4,[5]12:i:-) is believed to be a monophasic variant of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). This study was conducted to corroborate this hypothesis and to identify the molecular and phenotypic characteristics of the S. 4,[5]12:i:- isolates in Japan. A total of 51 S. 4,[5]12:i:-(More)
Technical Appendix Technical Appendix Figure. Distribution of the MICs of colistin for the 684 E. coli isolates from diseased swine in Japan between 1991 and 2014. Because the breakpoint MIC of colistin for Enterobacteriaceae has not yet been published by the CLSI (1), isolates with an MIC of ≥4 μg/ml were considered colistin resistant according to the(More)
OBJECTIVES We investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities and resistance mechanisms of cattle-adapted Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin isolated in Japan in the past 30 years. This study is an example of evaluation of the impact of introduction of antimicrobials in veterinary medical practice on the selection of resistance in S. enterica. METHODS The(More)
Fifty-one Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (S. 4, [5],12:i:-) isolates (14 human strains, 34 animal strains and 3 river water strains) which are assumed to be monophasic variants of S. Typhimurium were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) in order to investigate their(More)