Amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by blockade of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor, 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX), has been recently demonstrated [Nat. Med. 6 (2000) 67; Nat. Med. 6 (2000) 62]. However, the mechanisms underlying regulation of the extracellular… (More)
PURPOSE To assess the pharmacology of perampanel and its antiseizure activity in preclinical models. Perampanel [2-(2-oxo-1-phenyl-5-pyridin-2-yl-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl) benzonitrile] is a novel, orally active, prospective antiepileptic agent currently in development for refractory partial-onset seizures. METHODS Perampanel pharmacology was assessed by… (More)
The non-abelian Stokes theorem for loop variables associated with nontrivial loops (knots and links) is derived. It is shown that a loop variable is in general different from unity even if the field strength vanishes everywhere on the surface surrounded by the loop.
We report an implementation of GeneSys, which is a Web information integration system on 3D virtual space. We have built Kwansei Gakuin Kobe Sanda Campus as a virtual space called VKSC in which character agents navigate a user. VKSC reflects the Web information concerning weather, school calendar, and laboratories in the campus and the behaviour of agents… (More)
In group-living primates, individuals often exchange grooming with not only kin but also non-kin. We investigated the effect of soliciting behaviors on grooming exchanges in a free-ranging Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) group at Katsuyama. In this study, we used a focal animal sampling method, targeting 14 females. Data were collected for 15.75 ± 2.67… (More)
It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A… (More)
In animal societies, the effect of grooming interactions on anxiety reduction is unclear. This study examined the effects of giving and receiving grooming on anxiety reduction in free ranging female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by measuring rates of self-scratching as an index of anxiety. In this study, the authors used a focal-animal sampling method,… (More)