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Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory and necrotizing disease clinically characterized by selective involvement of the optic nerves and spinal cord. There has been a long controversy as to whether NMO is a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS) or a distinct disease. Recently, an NMO-specific antibody (NMO-IgG) was found in the sera from patients with(More)
NMO-IgG is a disease-specific autoantibody for neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and its target antigen is aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel. Recently, we established a sensitive anti-AQP4 antibody assay using human AQP4-transfected cells, which appeared more sensitive than the original NMO-IgG assay. So far, there has been no large-scale study on anti-AQP4(More)
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is clinically characterized by severe optic neuritis and transverse myelitis. In Japan, NMO has been named optic-spinal multiple sclerosis (OSMS) and it has been thought to be a subtype of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, several clinical and laboratory findings suggest NMO or OSMS is distinct from MS. Recently, the(More)
Mechanisms of blockade of two types of Ca2+ channels by the organic Ca2+ antagonists, nicardipine, diltiazem, verapamil, and flunarizine, were examined in rat aorta smooth muscle cells in primary culture by using the whole-cell voltage-clamp method. T-type Ca2+ current (T-type ICa) was isolated by an internal perfusion of 5 mM F-, which irreversibly(More)
OBJECTIVE To delineate the MRI features that distinguish neuromyelitis optica (NMO) from multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS We compared the distribution of the spinal cord lesions by analyzing 1) lesion area, 2) lesion density (by superimposing the lesions onto the standard sections of the cervical and thoracic cord with appropriate transparencies using(More)
EEG data were obtained in the basic state from 16 scalp sites of 44 patients with affective disorder, diagnosed by DSM-III criteria, and 44 normal controls. The EEG power spectra were computed and the t statistic significance probability mapping (SPM) was applied to visualize regions where the patient group showed differences in the EEG topogram from the(More)
Apoptosis is the most common form of physiological cell death, plays an important role in a variety of physiological and pathological situations, and is characterized by an endonuclease activation. Aged gerbils (24-month-old) showed a significant elevation of the distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) threshold and a significant decrease of the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE L-Threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS) is reported to increase the nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis in cultured mouse L-M fibroblast and astroglial cells, and this effect is not blocked by treatment with decarboxylase inhibitor. NGF is suggested to play an important role in neuronal survival and regeneration under pathological(More)
In cattle, the in vivo effects of centrally administered corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) or arginine vasopressin (AVP) from the perspective of stress regulation have not been fully elucidated. We compared behavioral, adrenocorticotropic, and autonomic nervous responses to intracerebroventricularly infused bCRH or AVP in steers. Intracerebroventricular(More)
Effects of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) on single Ca-activated K current (IK(Ca)) in cultured smooth muscle cells of the rat aorta were investigated with the patch-clamp technique. In cell-attached patch configurations, extracellular application of isoproterenol (10(-5) M) increased the Ca-activated K currents. The increase in the currents(More)