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Acute encephalopathy is the most serious complication of pediatric viral infections, such as influenza and exanthem subitum. It occurs worldwide, but is most prevalent in East Asia, and every year several hundreds of Japanese children are affected by influenza-associated encephalopathy. Mortality has recently declined, but is still high. Many survivors are(More)
Human beta-amyloid precursor protein immunoreactivity was demonstrated in axonal swellings (spheroids) around periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) of neonates. Immunoreactive axons were found at the early, but not late stage of PVL. beta-Amyloid precursor protein immunoreactivity was homogeneous in damaged axons at the early stage of PVL manifesting(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in children worldwide and can cause high mortality, especially in developing countries. However, information on the clinical and molecular characteristics of RSV infection in developing countries is limited. From April 2010 to May 2011, 1,082 nasopharyngeal swabs were(More)
Mutations that perturb neuronal migration provide important biological clues that can lead to an understanding of the role of specific cells and molecules in the formation of the cortex. The human neuronal migration disorder, Miller-Dieker Lissencephaly, results from a hemideletion of LIS-1, which encodes a subunit of a brain platelet-activating factor(More)
A research committee supported by the Japanese government conducted a nationwide survey on the epidemiology of acute encephalopathy in Japan using a questionnaire. A total of 983 cases reportedly had acute encephalopathy during the past 3 years, 2007-2010. Among the pathogens of the preceding infection, influenza virus was the most common, followed by human(More)
The developmental profiles of two calcium-binding proteins, calbindin-D28k (CaBP) and parvalbumin (PV), were investigated immunohistochemically in the developing rat retina. CaBP-immunoreactivity appeared first on embryonic day 17 in the horizontal, amacrine and ganglion cells; on embryonic day 21 in the inner plexiform layer; and on post-natal day 6 in the(More)
We studied the immunohistochemical localization of the glutamate receptors (GluR-1, -2, and -3,) in the developing rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus using antibodies to GluR1 and to an epitope common to GluR2 and GluR3 (GluR2/3) subunits. In the cerebral cortex, GluR1 immunoreactivity appeared in the neurons from postnatal day (PND) 0, increased with(More)
The clinicopathological features of a previously unrecognised type of acute encephalopathy prevalent among Japanese children is described by reviewing the records of 13 consecutive patients treated and 28 previously reported cases. The hallmark of this encephalopathy, proposed to be a novel entity termed acute necrotising encephalopathy of childhood, is(More)
cause this technology is available in relatively few clinical laboratories, cases of infection with M. massiliense may be mistakenly attributed to M. ab-scessus. Although infections with M. massiliense may be underrecognized, reports of these infections are raising concern. The capacity of this bacteria to infect different body sites is further evidence for(More)
The clinical, radiological and pathological features of acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood, a disease entity established recently, are described. This disease predominantly affects infants and young children living in Japan and Taiwan, and manifests itself as acute encephalopathy following viral infections. The hallmark of this encephalopathy is(More)