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It's long been possible to give users outside an actual environment that environment's visual and auditory information and thus contribute to establishing presence. However, we've yet to establish much presence when users require olfactory information - such as in environments focused on foods, flowers, perfumes, or, in some cases, more offensive smells.(More)
Controversy remains over whether the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory applies to all tumors. To determine whether cells within a highly aggressive solid tumor are stochastically or hierarchically organized, we combined a reporter system where the nucleostemin (NS) promoter drives GFP expression (termed NS-GFP) with a mouse brain tumor model induced by(More)
Despite a better understanding of their anatomy, the functional role of frontal pathways, i.e., the fronto-striatal tract (FST) and frontal aslant tract (FAT), remains obscure. We studied 19 patients who underwent awake surgery for a frontal glioma (14 left, 5 right) by performing intraoperative electrical mapping of both fascicles during motor and language(More)
OBJECT Recently, intraoperative mapping has disclosed that, in addition to the classic language centers (that is, the Broca and Wernicke centers), other cortical regions may also play an important role in language organization. In the prefrontal cortex, although the lateral superior frontal gyrus (LSFG) could have language-related functions, there are no(More)
BACKGROUND The retrochiasmatic region is one of the most challenging areas to surgically expose. The authors evaluated the transcrusal approach, which involves removal of the superior and posterior semicircular canal from the ampulla to the common crus, to expose the retrochiasmatic region and compared it with the retrolabyrinthine approach, both of which(More)
Nonenhancing intrinsic brain tumors have been empirically treated with a strategy that has been adopted for World Health Organization (WHO) grade II gliomas (low-grade gliomas: LGGs), even though small parts of the tumors might have been diagnosed as WHO grade III gliomas after surgery. However, the best surgical strategy for nonenhancing gliomas, including(More)
A 5-year-old male presented with scrotal migration of the catheter from a ventriculoperitoneal shunt manifesting as left scrotal swelling 4 months after implantation. Surgical obliteration of the patent peritoneal processus vaginalis that forms a corridor from the peritoneum to the scrotum was performed to avoid shunt malfunction. Review of the 26 reported(More)
BACKGROUND The anterolateral approach is one of the main routes for accessing suprachiasmatic lesions involving the anterior communicating artery (AComA) complex. Pterional (PT) craniotomy and its alternatives, including orbitozygomatic, orbitopterional, and mini-supraorbital craniotomies, have been developed as tailored frontotemporal craniotomies. One of(More)
OBJECT Disturbance of the arcuate fasciculus in the dominant hemisphere is thought to be associated with language-processing disorders, including conduction aphasia. Although the arcuate fasciculus can be visualized in vivo with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, its involvement in functional processes associated with language has not been shown(More)
OBJECTIVE The arcuate fasciculus has been recognized as an important pathway for language processing. Brain tumors located in proximity to the fasciculus frequently cause preoperative language impairment, and in some cases, no language recovery occurs after tumor resection. No predictive value has been presented for possible postoperative language recovery(More)