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The genome of Aspergillus oryzae, a fungus important for the production of traditional fermented foods and beverages in Japan, has been sequenced. The ability to secrete large amounts of proteins and the development of a transformation system have facilitated the use of A. oryzae in modern biotechnology. Although both A. oryzae and Aspergillus flavus belong(More)
In order to metastasize, cancer cells need to acquire a motile phenotype. Previously, development of this phenotype was thought to rely on the acquisition of selected, random mutations and thus would occur late in cancer progression. However, recent studies show that cancer cells disseminate early, implying the existence of a different, faster route to the(More)
Although metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related death, it is not clear why some patients with localized cancer develop metastatic disease after complete resection of their primary tumor. Such relapses have been attributed to tumor cells that disseminate early and remain dormant for prolonged periods of time; however, little is known about the(More)
Although interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been thought to be the most important cytokine for T cell growth, animals lacking IL-2 or a component of its receptor molecules have more expanded T cells with activated memory phenotype, indicating an indispensable role for the IL-2/IL-2 receptor system in regulating the size and activity of the T cell population. In this(More)
Iron homeostasis requires subtle control systems, as iron is both essential and toxic. In Aspergillus nidulans, iron represses iron acquisition via the GATA factor SreA, and induces iron-dependent pathways at the transcriptional level, by a so far unknown mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that iron-dependent pathways (e.g., heme biosynthesis) are repressed(More)
The identification and annotation of protein-coding genes is one of the primary goals of whole-genome sequencing projects, and the accuracy of predicting the primary protein products of gene expression is vital to the interpretation of the available data and the design of downstream functional applications. Nevertheless, the comprehensive annotation of(More)
A significantly increased risk for dominant sensorineural deafness in patients who have Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) caused by endothelin receptor type B and SOX10 has been reported. Despite the fact that c-RET is the most frequent causal gene of HSCR, it has not been determined whether impairments of c-Ret and c-RET cause congenital deafness in mice and(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of the study was to investigate signaling molecules involved in the acquisition of tolerogenic properties by dendritic cells (DC) in ret transgenic mice with spontaneous melanoma progression and to target these molecules to overcome the barrier for effective melanoma immunotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN DC functions and expression(More)
T-cell infiltration is known to impact tumor growth and is associated with cancer patient survival. However, the molecular cues that favor T-cell infiltration remain largely undefined. Here, using a genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma, we show that CXCR3 ligands and CCL5 synergize to attract effector T cells into cutaneous metastases, and their(More)