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BACKGROUND Diminished cardiac vagal activity and higher heart rate predict a high mortality rate of chronic heart failure (CHF) after myocardial infarction. We investigated the effects of chronic electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve on cardiac remodeling and long-term survival in an animal model of CHF after large myocardial infarction. METHODS AND(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of the present study was to test two hypotheses: (1) the momentum of the blood flowing out of the left ventricle toward the aorta (inertia force) plays an important role in the initiation of decay and the maximum rate of decay (peak (-dP/dt)) of left ventricular pressure (P); (2) a normal heart itself generates the inertia force which(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this investigation was to differentiate chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (CPTE) from primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) by using noninvasive Doppler ultrasound techniques. BACKGROUND A recent investigation in our laboratory has indicated that the pulmonary artery (PA) pressure waveform conveys significant information that can(More)
OBJECTIVES The accurate diagnosis of chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (CPTE) is a prerequisite for life-saving surgical interventions. To help in the differential diagnosis of CPTE and primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), we characterized the configuration of the pulmonary artery pressure waveform. BACKGROUND Because CPTE predominantly involves the(More)
The sympathetic baroreflex is an important feedback system in stabilization of arterial pressure. This system can be decomposed into the controlling element (mechanoneural arc) and the controlled element (neuromechanical arc). We hypothesized that the intersection of the two operational curves representing their respective functions on an equilibrium(More)
BACKGROUND Some studies have shown that metformin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and has a potent cardioprotective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Because AMPK also is activated in animal models of heart failure, we investigated whether metformin decreases cardiomyocyte apoptosis and attenuates the progression of heart failure in(More)
The baroreflex loop consists of a fast neural arc and a slow mechanical arc. We hypothesized that the neural baroreflex arc compensates the slow mechanical response and thus improves the quality of blood pressure regulation. We estimated the open-loop transfer characteristics of the neural baroreflex arc (HP), i.e., from carotid sinus pressure to(More)
We investigated how changes in ventricular contractility and arterial properties associated with exercise influence the energy transmission from the left ventricle to the arterial system. On six chronically instrumented dogs preconditioned to run on a treadmill, we imposed exercise loads of various degrees by altering the speed and slope of the treadmill(More)
Although the characteristics of the static interaction between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in regulating heart rate (HR) have been well established, how the dynamic interaction modulates the HR response remains unknown. We therefore investigated dynamic interaction by estimating the transfer function from nerve stimulation to HR(More)
RATIONALE Mechanical stress is known to alter the electrophysiological properties of the myocardium and may trigger fatal arrhythmias when an abnormal load is applied to the heart. OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that the structural heterogeneity of the ventricular wall modulates globally applied stretches to create heterogeneous strain distributions(More)