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BACKGROUND Because researchers have reported that antidepressants increase the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the rat hippocampus, we investigated whether serum BDNF levels may be used as a putative biological marker for major depressive disorders (MDD). METHODS We measured serum BDNF in the following three groups:(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal viral infection is associated with increased risk for schizophrenia. It is hypothesized that the maternal immune response to viruses may influence fetal brain development and lead to schizophrenia. METHODS To mimic a viral infection, the synthetic double strand RNA polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (poly I:C) was administered(More)
OBJECTIVE A positron emission tomography (PET) study has suggested that dopamine transporter density of the caudate/putamen is reduced in methamphetamine users. The authors measured nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex density, in addition to caudate/putamen density, in methamphetamine users and assessed the relation of these measures to the subjects'(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that genetic factors might contribute to the pathogenesis of eating disorders and that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in the pathophysiology of eating disorders. To investigate the role of the BDNF gene in the susceptibility to eating disorders, we analyzed the BDNF 196G/A gene polymorphism in female(More)
BACKGROUND Acetylcholinesterase activity, a marker for degeneration of the central cholinergic system, has consistently been reported, in necropsy brain studies, to be reduced in the cerebral cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease. We have shown regional acetylcholinesterase activity in vivo in rodent and primate brains with radioactive acetylcholine(More)
BACKGROUND Precise mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of autism are currently unknown. Given the major role of glutamate in brain development, we have hypothesized that glutamatergic neurotransmission plays a role in the pathophysiology of autism. In this study, we studied whether amino acids (glutamate, glutamine, glycine, D-serine, and L-serine)(More)
This study was undertaken to examine the effects of subsequent administration of antipsychotic drugs (clozapine and haloperidol) on cognitive deficits in mice after repeated administration of phencyclidine (PCP). In the novel object recognition test, repeated administration of PCP (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased exploratory preference in the retention(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that the serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of perospirone, an atypical antipsychotic drug with 5-HT(1A) receptor agonism, on cognitive deficits in mice after repeated administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist(More)
CONTEXT We can improve understanding of human methamphetamine dependence, and possibly our abilities to prevent and treat this devastating disorder, by identifying genes whose allelic variants predispose to methamphetamine dependence. OBJECTIVE To find "methamphetamine dependence" genes identified by each of 2 genome-wide association (GWA) studies of(More)