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BACKGROUND Maternal viral infection is associated with increased risk for schizophrenia. It is hypothesized that the maternal immune response to viruses may influence fetal brain development and lead to schizophrenia. METHODS To mimic a viral infection, the synthetic double strand RNA polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (poly I:C) was administered(More)
BACKGROUND Precise mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of autism are currently unknown. Given the major role of glutamate in brain development, we have hypothesized that glutamatergic neurotransmission plays a role in the pathophysiology of autism. In this study, we studied whether amino acids (glutamate, glutamine, glycine, D-serine, and L-serine)(More)
BACKGROUND Because researchers have reported that antidepressants increase the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the rat hippocampus, we investigated whether serum BDNF levels may be used as a putative biological marker for major depressive disorders (MDD). METHODS We measured serum BDNF in the following three groups:(More)
OBJECTIVE A positron emission tomography (PET) study has suggested that dopamine transporter density of the caudate/putamen is reduced in methamphetamine users. The authors measured nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex density, in addition to caudate/putamen density, in methamphetamine users and assessed the relation of these measures to the subjects'(More)
CONTEXT We can improve understanding of human methamphetamine dependence, and possibly our abilities to prevent and treat this devastating disorder, by identifying genes whose allelic variants predispose to methamphetamine dependence. OBJECTIVE To find "methamphetamine dependence" genes identified by each of 2 genome-wide association (GWA) studies of(More)
BACKGROUND We previously reported a reduction in serum levels of D-serine, an endogenous co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, in schizophrenia, supporting the hypofunction hypothesis of NMDA neurotransmission in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the genetic roles of serine racemase (SRR), an enzyme catalyzing the formation of(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that the glycine modulatory site on the NMDA receptor could be potential therapeutic target for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of the glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) inhibitor, (R)-(N-[3-(4'-fluorophenyl)-3-(4'-phenylphenoxy)propyl])sarcosine (NFPS), on cognitive(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that genetic factors might contribute to the pathogenesis of eating disorders and that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in the pathophysiology of eating disorders. To investigate the role of the BDNF gene in the susceptibility to eating disorders, we analyzed the BDNF 196G/A gene polymorphism in female(More)
Schizophrenia is believed to involve altered activation of dopamine receptors, and support for this hypothesis comes from the antipsychotic effect of antagonists of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). D2R is expressed most highly in the striatum, but most of the recent positron emission tomography (PET) studies have failed to show any change in D2R densities in(More)