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BACKGROUND Because researchers have reported that antidepressants increase the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the rat hippocampus, we investigated whether serum BDNF levels may be used as a putative biological marker for major depressive disorders (MDD). METHODS We measured serum BDNF in the following three groups:(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal viral infection is associated with increased risk for schizophrenia. It is hypothesized that the maternal immune response to viruses may influence fetal brain development and lead to schizophrenia. METHODS To mimic a viral infection, the synthetic double strand RNA polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (poly I:C) was administered(More)
Schizophrenia is believed to involve altered activation of dopamine receptors, and support for this hypothesis comes from the antipsychotic effect of antagonists of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). D2R is expressed most highly in the striatum, but most of the recent positron emission tomography (PET) studies have failed to show any change in D2R densities in(More)
OBJECTIVE A positron emission tomography (PET) study has suggested that dopamine transporter density of the caudate/putamen is reduced in methamphetamine users. The authors measured nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex density, in addition to caudate/putamen density, in methamphetamine users and assessed the relation of these measures to the subjects'(More)
BACKGROUND Glutamate has been thought to have a role in mental disorders. Because the postmortem interval (PMI) has such a pronounced effect on glutamate and other amino acids, it is important that a study be conducted to examine the effects of PMI on these amino acids in postmortem brains and that the analysis of intergroup differences be adjusted(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors examined dopamine transporter density in the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and amygdala in methamphetamine users and assessed the relationship of these measures to the subjects' clinical characteristics. METHOD Positron emission tomography with [(11)C]WIN 35,428 was used to examine the regions of interest in(More)
This study was undertaken to examine the effects of subsequent administration of antipsychotic drugs (clozapine and haloperidol) on cognitive deficits in mice after repeated administration of phencyclidine (PCP). In the novel object recognition test, repeated administration of PCP (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased exploratory preference in the retention(More)
BACKGROUND The hypofunction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Several lines of evidence suggest that D-serine may function as an endogenous agonist of the glycine site of the NMDA receptor. The aim of this study was to examine whether serum levels of D- and L-serine(More)
BACKGROUND D-Serine, an endogenous agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, is effective in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, orally administered D-serine is metabolized substantially by D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO), diminishing its oral bioavailability. In this study, we examined the effects of oral D-serine administration with or(More)