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Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase family, plays pivotal roles in reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cellular responses. In resting cells, endogenous ASK1 constitutively forms a homo-oligomerized but still inactive high-molecular-mass complex including thioredoxin (Trx), which we(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling is controlled by a variety of regulators that target either signaling receptors or activated Smad complexes. Among the negative regulators, Smad7 antagonizes TGF-beta signaling mainly through targeting the signaling receptors, whereas SnoN and c-Ski repress signaling at the transcriptional level through(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling facilitates tumor growth and metastasis in advanced cancer. Use of inhibitors of TGF-beta signaling may thus be a novel strategy for the treatment of patients with such cancer. In this study, we synthesized and characterized a small molecule inhibitor, A-83-01, which is structurally similar to previously(More)
The evolution of mitogenic pathways has led to the parallel requirement for negative control mechanisms, which prevent aberrant growth and the development of cancer. Principally, such negative control mechanisms are represented by tumor suppressor genes, which normally act to constrain cell proliferation (Macleod, K. 2000. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 10:81-93).(More)
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial morphological event that occurs during the progression of epithelial tumors. EMT can be induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in some tumor cells. Here, we demonstrate the molecular mechanism whereby Snail, a key regulator of EMT, is induced by TGF-beta in tumor cells. Snail induction by(More)
The superimposition of male sex organs (penis and vas deferens) in a female gastropod, called imposex, is widely attributed to the exposure to tributyltin (TBT) compounds, used world-wide in antifouling paints for ships. It has been hypothesized that the TBT-induced imposex is mediated by an increasing androgen level relative to the estrogen level, namely a(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is crucial in numerous cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. TGF-beta signaling is transduced by intracellular Smad proteins that are regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2) prevents TGF-beta and bone morphogenetic(More)
Smad7 negatively regulates transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily signaling by binding to activated type I receptors, thereby preventing the phosphorylation of receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), as well as by recruiting HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligases to degrade type I receptors through a ubiquitin-dependent mechanism. To elucidate the regulatory(More)
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK) 1 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) in the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways that play multiple important roles in cytokine and stress responses. Here we show that ASK2, a highly related serine/threonine kinase to ASK1, also functions as a MAP3K(More)
c-Ski has been known to be phosphorylated at serine residue(s), which results in slower migration of c-Ski in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The position(s) of phosphorylation, however, has not been determined. In the present study, we identified a phosphorylation site of c-Ski which affects its electrophoretic motility as serine 515 using(More)