Masao Aihara

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BACKGROUND Evidence of poor inhibition in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comes primarily from neuropsychological tasks and neuroimaging studies, many of which have revealed structural/functional abnormalities of the frontostriatal network with opposing functions of disinhibition and inhibition. Studies of saccades have therefore contributed(More)
A retrospective multicenter study was conducted, designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of midazolam for the treatment of status epilepticus. The subjects were 358 inpatients who received intravenous midazolam therapy for status epilepticus. The mean age was 48.6 +/- 46.5 months. The underlying disorder was epilepsy in 195 cases, and acute symptomatic(More)
A considerable proportion of children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS) have increasingly been found to show neuropsychiatric deficits such as cognitive impairment and impulsivity, possibly associated with frontal lobe dysfunctions. We performed 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based brain volumetry to(More)
OBJECTIVE Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is commonly used to investigate continuous changes of brain activation and has excellent time resolution. Verbal fluency task (VFT) is widely used as a neuropsychological test of frontal lobe function. The aim of this study was to investigate normal developmental change in frontal lobe function during VFT(More)
Status epilepticus (SE) occurs in children of all ages. Recent epidemiologic investigations of SE show heightened morbidity and mortality in newborns and young infants. However, the existing definition of SE in newborns is not precise and not easily applied in clinical investigations or in clinical practice. To evaluate the underlying conditions, clinical(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of levetiracetam (LEV) in refractory epileptic children. METHODS The study group included 61 outpatients (7 generalized, 48 localization-related, 3 undetermined, 3 unclassified) aged between 16 months and 18 years. LEV was given twice daily at a total dose of 10 mg/kg/day.(More)
Cognitive neuroscience researchers have hypothesized that context-dependent and context-independent response selection is associated with the left and right frontal lobe, respectively, in right-handed adult males. Patients with left frontal lobe lesions show context-independent reasoning in a cognitive bias task (CBT), while those with right frontal lesions(More)
AIMS We investigated the relationship between behavioral problems, location of electroencephalogram (EEG) paroxysmal abnormalities (PA), and treatment with levetiracetam in children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and epilepsy. METHODS Twelve PDD children with epilepsy were included in the study. All patients had EEG PA (frontal spikes, 8;(More)
A cognitive bias task (CBT) delineates two different cognitive selection mechanisms in the prefrontal cortex. To identify functional anatomy of context-dependent reasoning, we used technetium-99mhexamethyl- propyleneamine oxime (99mTc HM-PAO) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and statistical parametric mapping. Twelve right-handed men 20-24(More)
Relatively little is known about normal prefrontal lobe development. We used three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based brain volumetry to characterize developmental changes in prefrontal lobe volumes in infants and children. Prefrontal volumes were determined in 30 subjects aged 5 months to 18 years (221 months) and 3 adults aged 28-39 years(More)