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RNA silencing or post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants is known as a defense system against virus infection. Several plant viruses have been shown to encode an RNA silencing suppressor. Using a green fluorescent protein-based transient suppression assay, we show that NSs protein of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has RNA silencing suppressor(More)
Positive-strand RNA viruses use diverse mechanisms to regulate viral and host gene expression for ensuring their efficient proliferation or persistence in the host. We found that a small viral noncoding RNA (0.4 kb), named SR1f, accumulated in Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV)-infected plants and protoplasts and was packaged into virions. The genome(More)
Spring beauty latent virus (SBLV), a bromovirus, systemically and efficiently infected Arabidopsis thaliana, whereas the well-studied bromoviruses brome mosaic virus (BMV) and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) did not infect and poorly infected A. thaliana, respectively. We constructed biologically active cDNA clones of SBLV genomic RNAs and determined(More)
Brome mosaic virus (BMV) requires the coat protein (CP) for cell-to-cell movement whereas Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), from the same genus, does not. Chimeric viruses created by exchanging the movement protein (MP) gene between the viruses can move from cell to cell. We show that interference in CP expression impaired the movement of the chimeric(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene-regulatory mechanism that operates in many eukaryotes. RNAi is induced by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and is mainly involved in defence against transposons and viruses. To counteract RNAi, viruses have RNAi suppressors. Here we show a novel mechanism of RNAi suppression by a plant virus Red clover(More)
The expression of the coat protein gene requires RNA-mediated trans-activation of subgenomic RNA synthesis in Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), the genome of which consists of two positive-strand RNAs, RNA1 and RNA2. The trans-acting RNA element required for subgenomic RNA synthesis from RNA1 has been mapped previously to the protein-coding region(More)
Movement protein (MP) of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) forms punctate structures on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of Nicotiana benthamiana cells, which are associated with viral RNA1 replication (Kaido et al., Virology 395, 232-242. 2009). We investigated the significance of ER-targeting by MP during virus movement from cell to cell, by(More)
Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) is a member of the genus Dianthovirus and has a bipartite positive-sense genomic RNA with 3' ends that are not polyadenylated. In this study, we show that both genomic RNA1 and RNA2 lack a 5' cap structure and that uncapped in vitro transcripts of RCNMV RNA1 replicated to a level comparable to that for capped(More)
The genome of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) in the genus Dianthovirus is divided into two RNA molecules of RNA1 and RNA2, which have no cap structure at the 5' end and no poly(A) tail at the 3' end. The 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of RCNMV RNA1 contains an essential RNA element (3'TE-DR1), which is required for cap-independent translation. In(More)
Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) is a positive-strand RNA virus with a bipartite genome. The movement protein (MP) encoded by RNA2 is essential for viral movement. To obtain further insights into the viral movement mechanism, subcellular localizations of RCNMV MP fused with green fluorescent protein (MP:GFP) were examined in Nicotiana benthamiana(More)