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Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is implicated in the etiology or pathology of schizophrenia, although its biological roles in this illness are not fully understood. Human midbrain dopaminergic neurons highly express NRG1 receptors (ErbB4). To test its neuropathological role in the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia, we administered type-1 NRG1 protein to(More)
A cornerstone of Einstein's special relativity is Lorentz invariance-the postulate that all observers measure exactly the same speed of light in vacuum, independent of photon-energy. While special relativity assumes that there is no fundamental length-scale associated with such invariance, there is a fundamental scale (the Planck scale, l(Planck)(More)
Nerve injury may result in neuropathic pain, characterized by allodynia and hyperalgesia. Accumulating evidence suggests the existence of a molecular substrate for neuropathic pain produced by neurons, glia, and immune cells. Here, we show that leptin, an adipokine exclusively produced by adipocytes, is critical for the development of tactile allodynia(More)
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB(More)
To clarify the role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in neuropathic pain, we examined the effect of pioglitazone, a PPARgamma agonist, on tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in a neuropathic pain model. Mice were subjected to partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL) and given pioglitazone (1 - 25 mg/kg, p.o.) once daily.(More)
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a component of the mesolimbic system involved in drug dependence. Activity of nucleus accumbens neurons is modulated by glutamatergic afferents from the prefrontal cortex and by dopaminergic afferents from the ventral tegmental area (VTA). In the present study, we reconstructed the mesolimbic system using organotypic slice(More)
Energetic young pulsars and expanding blast waves [supernova remnants (SNRs)] are the most visible remains after massive stars, ending their lives, explode in core-collapse supernovae. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has unveiled a radio quiet pulsar located near the center of the compact synchrotron nebula inside the supernova remnant CTA 1. The(More)
The NeXT (New exploration X-ray Telescope), the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission which is currently planed for launch in 2013. NeXT is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3–80 keV) provided by multi-layer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high(More)
We studied the effect of synthetic rat alpha-atrial natriuretic polypeptide (1-28) (ANF-(99-126)) and related atrial natriuretic polypeptides on the accumulation of cyclic GMP (cGMP) in isolated rat choroid plexus in vitro, the objective being to determine whether ANF-(99-126) binding sites are physiologically active receptors. One microM of ANF-(99-126)(More)
Nicotine is neuronal stimulating drug in the central nervous system and elicits various effects through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. As previously reported, nicotine has an antinociceptive effect through activation of endogenous opioid neurons. However, detailed mechanisms of nicotine-induced antinociception are uncertain. In this study, we focused on(More)