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A 42 kb region on human chromosome 9p21 encodes for three distinct tumor suppressors, p16(INK4A), p14(ARF) and p15(INK4B), and is altered in an estimated 30-40% of human tumors. The expression of the INK4A-ARF-INK4B gene cluster is silenced by polycomb during normal cell growth and is activated by oncogenic insults and during aging. How the polycomb is(More)
Cyclin D-Cdk4/6 and cyclin A/E-Cdk2 are suggested to be involved in phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) during the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. However, it is unclear why several Cdks are needed and how they are different from one another. We found that the consensus amino acid sequence for phosphorylation by cyclin D1-Cdk4 is(More)
Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), a transcriptional activator, and its antagonistic repressor, IRF-2, were originally identified as regulators of the type I interferon (IFN) system. We have generated mice deficient in either IRF-1 or IRF-2 by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. IRF-1-deficient fibroblasts lacked the normally observed type I IFN(More)
The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays an important role in control of the abundance of cell cycle regulators. Mice lacking Skp2, an F-box protein and substrate recognition component of an Skp1-Cullin-F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligase, were generated. Although Skp2(-/-) animals are viable, cells in the mutant mice contain markedly enlarged nuclei with(More)
By using the polymerase chain reaction technique combined with restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), a novel polymorphism of CYP2A6, CYP2A6*6, was detected in 0.4% of the Japanese population. To study the enzymatic properties of the CYP2A6.6 protein with a single amino acid substitution of arginine 128 to glutamine, both this isozyme(More)
The cell cycle is governed by a family of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). Cdk2 forms a functional complex with cyclin E and plays a pivotal role in the regulation of G1/S transition. Cdk2 activity is negatively regulated by interactions with inhibitors. p27Kip1, one of the most potent inhibitors of Cdk2, was recently identified as a powerful negative(More)
PURPOSE Misregistration artifact is the major cause of image degradation in digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a newly developed nonlinear geometric warping method to reduce misregistration artifact in DSA. METHODS The processing of the images was carried out on a workstation with a fully(More)
1. Pancreatic HCO3- and fluid secretion were studied by monitoring luminal pH (pHL) and luminal volume simultaneously in interlobular duct segments isolated from guinea-pig pancreas. The secretory rate and HCO3- flux were estimated from fluorescence images obtained following microinjection of BCECF-dextran (70 kDa, 20 microM) into the duct lumen. 2. Ducts(More)
The purpose of this study is to confirm the hypocalciuric effect of rice bran experimentally and clinically. Urinary calcium excretion and its absorption in the intestine were reduced significantly by rice bran or phytin in rats fed high calcium diets, while there were no significant decreases with a low calcium diet. For the clinical study 70 patients with(More)
Isolated interlobular ducts from the guinea-pig pancreas secrete a HCO3--rich fluid in response to secretin. To determine the role of Cl- transporters in this process, intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i) was measured in ducts loaded with the Cl--sensitive fluoroprobe, 6-methoxy-N-ethylquinolinium chloride (MEQ). [Cl-]i decreased when the luminal Cl-(More)