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The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is activated in vitro by three different protein kinases: MKK3, MKK4, and MKK6. To examine the relative roles of these protein kinases in the mechanism of p38 MAP kinase activation in vivo, we examined the effect of disruption of the murine Mkk3, Mkk4, and Mkk6 genes on the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. We show(More)
Abnormally high signals from receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) are associated with carcinogenesis, and impaired deactivation of RTKs may also be a mechanism in cancer. Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is one of the master regulators that sort activated receptors toward lysosomes and shut down their signals. Hrs contains a(More)
Endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) proteins form a multicomplex sorting machinery that controls multivesicular body (MVB) formation and the sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins to the endosomes. Being sorted to the MVB generally results in the lysosome-dependent degradation of cell-surface receptors, and defects in this machinery(More)
Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is a well-known pathogenic agent which causes apoptosis in erythrocyte lineage cells. Here, we provide the first evidence that mitochondrial autophagy is specifically found in the B19-infected cells. The protein expression ratio for LC3-II/LC3-I increased significantly in infected cells, indicating possible involvement of cellular(More)
The appropriate sorting of vesicular cargo, including cell-surface proteins, is critical for many cellular functions. Ubiquitinated cargo is targeted to endosomes and digested by lysosomal enzymes. We previously identified AMSH, a deubiquitination enzyme (DUB), to be involved in vesicular transport. Here, we purified an AMSH-binding protein, CHMP3, which is(More)
The degradation and sorting of cytoplasmic and cell-surface proteins are crucial steps in the control of cellular functions. We previously identified three mammalian Vps (vacuolar protein sorting) proteins, Hrs (hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate) and signal transducing adaptor molecule (STAM) 1 and -2, which are(More)
Deubiquitination is a biochemical process that mediates the removal of ubiquitin moieties from ubiquitin-conjugated substrates. AMSH (associated molecule with the SH3 domain of STAM) is a deubiquitination enzyme that participates in the endosomal sorting of several cell-surface molecules. AMSH impairment results in missorted ubiquitinated cargoes in vitro(More)
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