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It has been thought that the lunar highland crust was formed by the crystallization and floatation of plagioclase from a global magma ocean, although the actual generation mechanisms are still debated. The composition of the lunar highland crust is therefore important for understanding the formation of such a magma ocean and the subsequent evolution of the(More)
We determined model ages of mare deposits on the farside of the Moon on the basis of the crater frequency distributions in 10-meter-resolution images obtained by the Terrain Camera on SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) (Kaguya). Most mare volcanism that formed mare deposits on the lunar farside ceased at approximately 3.0 billion years ago,(More)
[1] The Spectral Profiler (SP) onboard the Japanese SELENE (KAGUYA) spacecraft is now providing global high spectral resolution visible-near infrared continuous reflectance spectra of the Moon. The reflectance spectra of impact craters on the farside of the Moon reveal lithologies that were not previously identified. The achievements of SP so far include:(More)
Puzzlingly, the parent bodies of ordinary chondrites (the most abundant type of meteorites) do not seem to be abundant among asteroids. One possible explanation is that surfaces of the parent bodies become optically altered, to become the S-type asteroids which are abundant in the main asteroid belt. The process is called 'space weathering'-it makes the(More)
The Hayabusa spacecraft successfully recovered dust particles from the surface of near-Earth asteroid 25143 Itokawa. Synchrotron-radiation x-ray diffraction and transmission and scanning electron microscope analyses indicate that the mineralogy and mineral chemistry of the Itokawa dust particles are identical to those of thermally metamorphosed LL(More)
The inside of Shackleton Crater at the lunar south pole is permanently shadowed; it has been inferred to hold water-ice deposits. The Terrain Camera (TC), a 10-meter-resolution stereo camera onboard the Selenological and Engineering Explorer (SELENE) spacecraft, succeeded in imaging the inside of the crater, which was faintly lit by sunlight scattered from(More)
Regolith particles on the asteroid Itokawa were recovered by the Hayabusa mission. Their three-dimensional (3D) structure and other properties, revealed by x-ray microtomography, provide information on regolith formation. Modal abundances of minerals, bulk density (3.4 grams per cubic centimeter), and the 3D textures indicate that the particles represent a(More)
Meteorite studies suggest that each solar system object has a unique oxygen isotopic composition. Chondrites, the most primitive of meteorites, have been believed to be derived from asteroids, but oxygen isotopic compositions of asteroids themselves have not been established. We measured, using secondary ion mass spectrometry, oxygen isotopic compositions(More)
Noble gas isotopes were measured in three rocky grains from asteroid Itokawa to elucidate a history of irradiation from cosmic rays and solar wind on its surface. Large amounts of solar helium (He), neon (Ne), and argon (Ar) trapped in various depths in the grains were observed, which can be explained by multiple implantations of solar wind particles into(More)
Introduction: Visible multiband spectroscopy using ground-based telescopes or sensors onboard spacecraft has been commonly used for mapping planetary surfaces for detecting the compositional, physical, and space weathering information. However, detecting the degree of space weathering from simple color plots using band ratios, etc. can easily suffer from(More)
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