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Conditioned fear is an artificial stress, induced by a stimulus, such as a tone, that does not elicit fear in nature. This fear response is acquired by experimental animals when tone is combined with an unconditioned stimulus, such as electrical foot shock. The amygdala is considered to be the area involved in acquisition, consolidation and recall of fear.(More)
In our previous experiments on animals evidence was found that citrus fragrance can restore the stress-induced immunosuppression, suggesting that citrus fragrance may have an effect on restoring the homeostatic balance. Since a dysregulation of the neuroendocrine and immune function is thought to be associated with psychosomatic or psychiatric disorders an(More)
Borna disease virus (BDV) infection has been suspected to be a possible etiological factor in human psychiatric disorders and recently in chronic fatigue syndrome. Evidence of the correlation of BDV infection with these disorders remained unclear. Kagoshima is known to be one of the major areas in which human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is(More)
We investigated the possible role of dopamine receptors in the mediation of copulatory disorder induced by defeat experience in male mice, using L-dopa and apomorphine. To generate the copulatory disorder, male mice were attacked 20 times daily for 5 consecutive days, as intruders in confrontation with an aggressive resident. Following the repeated exposure(More)
Recent evidence suggests that large amounts of releasable zinc are present in central synaptic vesicles, and that substantial (several hundred microM) transient elevations in extracellular zinc may accompany intense neuronal excitation. Brief pulse exposure of cortical cell cultures to similar concentrations of zinc resulted in widespread dose-dependent(More)
The effect of norepinephrine on human NK cell activity was investigated using a flow cytometry assay. NK cell activity was found to be inhibited by direct addition of norepinephrine to lymphocyte/target cell mixtures in a dose-dependent fashion. This inhibitory effect of norepinephrine was blocked by propranolol but not by atenolol. The results suggest that(More)
Although primary antiviral CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) can be induced in mice depleted of CD4+ T cells, the role of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the generation and maintenance of antiviral memory CTL is uncertain. This question, and the consequences upon vaccine-mediated protection, were investigated in transgenic CD4 knockout (CD4ko) mice, which lack CD4+(More)
BACKGROUND The conditioned fear response is considered to be acquired by experimental animals when tone information is combined with that of an electrical foot shock (unconditioned stimulus) in the amygdala. Nitric oxide biosynthesized in the brain is reportedly involved in several kinds of learning. METHODS In this study, we continuously monitored the(More)