Masamitsu Shimazawa

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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are signaling receptors in the innate immune system that is a specific immunologic response to systemic bacterial infection. We investigated whether cerebral ischemia induced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h differed in mice that lack a functional TLR3, TLR4, or TLR9 signaling pathway. TLR4, but not TLR3 or(More)
Metallothioneins (MTs) are small cysteine-rich proteins found widely throughout the mammalian body, including the CNS. MT-1 and -2 protect against reactive oxygen species and free radicals. We investigated the role of MT-1 and -2 using MT-1,-2 knockout (KO) mice. MT-1,-2 KO mice exhibited greater neuronal damage after permanent middle cerebral artery(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recently, fasudil, a Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, was reported to prevent cerebral ischemia in vivo by increasing cerebral blood flow and inhibiting inflammatory responses. However, it is uncertain whether a ROCK inhibitor can directly protect neurons against ischemic damage. Our purpose was to evaluate both the involvement of ROCK(More)
To improve the clinical outcome of patients who suffered ischemic stroke, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of the major concerns that should be conquered. Inflammatory reactions are considered a major contributor to brain injury following cerebral ischemia, and I/R exacerbates these reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress is known to induce neuronal cell death and to play roles in neurodegenerative diseases. Phosphorylation of double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) has been demonstrated in brain tissues in patients with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Here, we examined the effect of a PKR inhibitor (an(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the time course of the ocular hypoperfusion, retinal damage, and optic nerve damage induced by intravitreal injection of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in rabbits. ET-1, at 5 pmol (20 microL, twice a week for 2 or 4 weeks), was injected from the pars plana into the posterior vitreous of the right eye. Optic nerve head (ONH)(More)
The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant property of honeybee products and their constituents using an ESR method. Antioxidative activity was evaluated as the scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The DPPH radical scavenging activities, in descending order, were: ethanol extract of Chinese red propolis>ethanol(More)
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show a significantly increased incidence of glaucoma. AD is also associated with the occurrence of the neurotoxic peptide amyloid beta (Abeta). Therefore, we investigated whether Abeta is associated with retinal cell death in a retinal ganglion cell line (RGC-5). Treatment with Abeta(25-35), a neurotoxic fragment of(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced neuronal death may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, whether CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP), an ER-stress apoptotic mediator, is involved in the pathogenesis of ALS is controversial. Here we demonstrate the expression levels(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is caused by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER lumen, is associated with stroke and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. We evaluated the effect of a selective inducer of immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) (BiP inducer X; BIX) against both(More)