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School-based malaria education has been shown to be effective for improving the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of school children toward malaria control. However, little has been reported about the effect of such education on communities in developing countries. To evaluate the influence of school-based malaria education on the knowledge, attitudes,(More)
BACKGROUND In many developing countries, adolescents have become increasingly prone to engage in habitual risky sexual behavior such as early sexual initiation and unprotected sex. The objective of this study was to identify the operation of risk and protective factors in individual, family, peer, school, and community domains in predicting risky sexual(More)
BACKGROUND In many developing countries, intimate partner violence (IPV) training is not available for health providers. As a pioneer among developing countries, in 2009, the Sri Lankan Ministry of Health trained a group of community health providers known as public health midwives (PHMs) on IPV. We evaluated that training program's efficacy in improving(More)
The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of age and(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and syphilis, and to assess the behavioural risk factors for these infections among migrant-returnees and non-migrants in far western Nepal. METHODS In April 2001, we recruited 97 male migrant-returnees and 40 non-migrants from five rural villages in Doti district(More)
BACKGROUND HIV care providers may be optimally positioned to promote smoking behaviour change in their patients, among whom smoking is both highly prevalent and uniquely harmful. Yet research on this front is scant, particularly in the developing country context. Hence, this study describes smoking behaviour among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has frequently been associated with vitamin D deficiency as well as chronic inflammatory response. We tested the hypothesis of an independent relationship between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) in a cohort of HIV-positive people. A(More)
Japanese life expectancy increased by about 13.7 years during the first decade after World War II, despite the country's post-war poverty. Although it is known that medical progress explains part of this increase, roles of non-medical factors have not been systematically studied. This study hypothesizes that non-medical factors, in addition to medical(More)
We assessed unsafe sexual behaviors of the Nepalese HIV-positive men and their knowledge about the consequences of unsafe sex. We interviewed 167 participants recruited conveniently in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Of total, 125 participants (75%) had sex in the past 6 months, 47% of whom with multiple partners. Fifty-seven (46%) of 123 participants who had(More)
BACKGROUND Previous research has studied the rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection among HIV-positive people regardless of their antiretroviral therapy (ART) status. Our objectives were to measure the seroprevalence of HCV both in HIV-positive people receiving ART and in those not receiving ART and to describe the characteristics of coinfected people(More)