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Induced overexpression of AID in CH12F3-2 B lymphoma cells augmented class switching from IgM to IgA without cytokine stimulation. AID deficiency caused a complete defect in class switching and showed a hyper-IgM phenotype with enlarged germinal centers containing strongly activated B cells before or after immunization. AID-/- spleen cells stimulated in(More)
The activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) gene, specifically expressed in germinal center B cells in mice, is a member of the cytidine deaminase family. We herein report mutations in the human counterpart of AID in patients with the autosomal recessive form of hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM2). Three major abnormalities characterize AID deficiency: (1) the(More)
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a putative RNA-editing enzyme, is indispensable for somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch recombination, and gene conversion of immunoglobulin genes, which indicates a common molecular mechanism for these phenomena. Here we show that ectopic expression of AID alone can induce hypermutation in an artificial(More)
Chromosome translocations between c-myc and immunoglobulin (Ig) are associated with Burkitt's lymphoma in humans and with pristane- and IL6-induced plasmacytomas in mice. These translocations frequently involve Ig switch regions, suggesting that they might be the result of aberrant Ig class switch recombination (CSR). However, a direct link between CSR and(More)
The switch of the immunoglobulin isotype from IgM to IgG, IgE or IgA is mediated by class switch recombination (CSR). CSR changes the immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region (CH) gene from Cmu to one of the other CH genes. Somatic hypermutation introduces massive numbers of point mutations in the immunoglobulin variable (V) region gene, giving rise to(More)
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for the DNA cleavage step in immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR). AID is proposed to deaminate cytosine to generate uracil (U) in either mRNA or DNA. In the second instance, DNA cleavage depends on uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) for removal of U. Using phosphorylated histone gamma-H2AX focus(More)
Genome stability is regulated by the balance between efficiencies of the repair machinery and genetic alterations such as mutations and chromosomal rearrangements. It has been postulated that deregulation of class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM), which modify the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes in activated B cells, may be responsible(More)
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) plays an essential role in class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin genes. We report here that deficiency in AID results in the development of hyperplasia of isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) associated with a 100-fold expansion of anaerobic flora in the small intestine.(More)
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation, and has also been implicated in translocations between Ig switch regions and c-Myc in plasma cell tumors in mice. We asked if AID is required for accelerated tumor development in pristane-treated Bcl-xL transgenic BALB/c mice(More)
Somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) cause distinct genetic alterations at different regions of immunoglobulin genes in B lymphocytes: point mutations in variable regions and large deletions in S regions, respectively. Yet both depend on activation-induced deaminase (AID), the function of which in the two reactions has been an(More)