Learn More
Induced overexpression of AID in CH12F3-2 B lymphoma cells augmented class switching from IgM to IgA without cytokine stimulation. AID deficiency caused a complete defect in class switching and showed a hyper-IgM phenotype with enlarged germinal centers containing strongly activated B cells before or after immunization. AID-/- spleen cells stimulated in(More)
We have identified and characterized a novel human estrogen receptor (ER) beta isoform, ERbetacx, which is truncated at the C-terminal region but has an extra 26 amino acids due to alternative splicing. The ERbetacx transcript is expressed in testis, ovary, thymus and prostate as well as in human cultured cell lines such as HEC-1, HOS-TE85 and Saos-2 cells.(More)
The activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) gene, specifically expressed in germinal center B cells in mice, is a member of the cytidine deaminase family. We herein report mutations in the human counterpart of AID in patients with the autosomal recessive form of hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM2). Three major abnormalities characterize AID deficiency: (1) the(More)
Human estrogen receptor beta (hER beta) cDNA that encodes the full-length amino acid sequence has been isolated from testis poly(A)+ RNA with the combination of cDNA screening and reverse transcription-PCR. It is composed of a 1590-bp open reading frame and a segment of the 5'- and 3'-untranslated region (UTR) and encodes an additional 53 amino acids in the(More)
We have identified a novel gene referred to as activation-induced deaminase (AID) by subtraction of cDNAs derived from switch-induced and uninduced murine B lymphoma CH12F3-2 cells, more than 80% of which switch exclusively to IgA upon stimulation. The amino acid sequence encoded by AID cDNA is homologous to that of apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA-editing(More)
The mechanism to maintain homeostasis of the gut microbiota remains largely unknown despite its critical role in the body defense. In the intestines of mice with deficiency of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), the absence of hypermutated IgA is partially compensated for by the presence of large amounts of unmutated IgM and normal expression(More)
UTF1 is a transcriptional coactivator which has recently been isolated and found to be expressed mainly in pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells (A. Okuda, A. Fukushima, M. Nishimoto, et al., EMBO J. 17:2019-2032, 1998). To gain insight into the regulatory network of gene expression in ES cells, we have characterized the regulatory elements governing UTF1(More)
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a putative RNA-editing enzyme, is indispensable for somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch recombination, and gene conversion of immunoglobulin genes, which indicates a common molecular mechanism for these phenomena. Here we show that ectopic expression of AID alone can induce hypermutation in an artificial(More)
We have identified a novel octamer binding factor (Oct-3) in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. Oct-3, which recognizes the typical octamer motif (ATTTGCAT) as well as the AT-rich sequence TTAAAATTCA, is present in P19 stem cells but disappears when the cells are induced to differentiate by retinoic acid (RA). Cloned cDNA corresponding to Oct-3 encodes a(More)
One of the front lines of the immune defence is the gut mucosa, where immunoglobulin- (IgA) is continuously produced to react with commensal bacteria and dietary antigens. It is generally accepted that, after antigenic stimulation in the Peyer's patches, IgA+ lymphoblasts (B220+IgA+) migrate through the lymph and blood circulation, and eventually home to(More)