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We used a red chromophore formation pathway, in which the anionic red chromophore is formed from the neutral blue intermediate, to suggest a rational design strategy to develop blue fluorescent proteins with a tyrosine-based chromophore. The strategy was applied to red fluorescent proteins of the different genetic backgrounds, such as TagRFP, mCherry,(More)
Ca(2+)-stimulable (type I), Ca(2+)-insensitive (type II), and Ca(2+)-inhibitable adenylylcyclase (type VI) were transiently expressed in the human embryonic kidney 293 cell line. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) increased cAMP synthesis by the Ca(2+)-insensitive type II adenylylcyclase more than 9-fold within 10 min, while the treatment had no effect on the(More)
BACKGROUND The activity of adenylyl cyclase (AC) is enhanced by pharmacologically relevant concentrations of ethanol. The enhancing effect of ethanol on AC activity is AC isoform-specific. Therefore, we hypothesized that within a cyclic AMP-generating system, AC is the target of ethanol's action and that ethanol-sensitive AC molecules contain structural(More)
We characterized a human cDNA clone which encodes a novel adenylyl cyclase. Data from Southern and Northern blot analysis, and analysis of sequence similarity with a recently cloned mouse adenylyl cyclase (10), indicated that the human adenylyl cyclase was a species variant of type VII adenylyl cyclase. The sequence of the novel human adenylyl cyclase(More)
In C6-2B cells, agonist-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation is inhibited when the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration is increased. We now demonstrate that in C6-2B cells: (i) the early kinetics of the cyclic AMP inhibition by substance K (t1/2 = 35 s) and thapsigargin (t1/2 = 1.6 min) closely mimic the kinetics of the cytosolic Ca2+ increase evoked by either agent(More)
Whole chick embryo fibroblasts were infected with the Prague wild type Rous sarcoma virus and with a temperature sensitive mutant of this strain, RSVtsLA24. Normal fibroblasts and fibroblasts infected with the temperature-sensitive mutant and cultured at the nonpermissive temperature-sensitive mutant and cultured at the nonpermissive temperature, secreted(More)
A selective action of ethanol on major signal transduction proteins, such as adenylyl cyclase, has been considered to be important for certain actions of ethanol, and alcoholics have been demonstrated to differ from controls in measures of platelet adenylyl cyclase activity. Recent advances in identification and characterization of isoforms of adenylyl(More)
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect several forms of adenylyl cyclase (AC's) expressed in human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were synthesized based on the conserved sequences in the C2a area of the AC's. HEL cells were found to contain mRNA for type III and type VI AC. In addition, a novel AC message was(More)
Ethanol can enhance G(salpha)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity. Of the nine isoforms of AC, type 7 (AC7) is the most sensitive to ethanol. The potentiation of AC7 by ethanol is dependent on protein kinase C (PKC). We designed studies to determine which PKC isotype(s) are involved in the potentiation of Galpha(s)-activated AC7 activity by ethanol(More)