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We used a red chromophore formation pathway, in which the anionic red chromophore is formed from the neutral blue intermediate, to suggest a rational design strategy to develop blue fluorescent proteins with a tyrosine-based chromophore. The strategy was applied to red fluorescent proteins of the different genetic backgrounds, such as TagRFP, mCherry,(More)
Ca(2+)-stimulable (type I), Ca(2+)-insensitive (type II), and Ca(2+)-inhibitable adenylylcyclase (type VI) were transiently expressed in the human embryonic kidney 293 cell line. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) increased cAMP synthesis by the Ca(2+)-insensitive type II adenylylcyclase more than 9-fold within 10 min, while the treatment had no effect on the(More)
In C6-2B cells, agonist-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation is inhibited when the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration is increased. We now demonstrate that in C6-2B cells: (i) the early kinetics of the cyclic AMP inhibition by substance K (t1/2 = 35 s) and thapsigargin (t1/2 = 1.6 min) closely mimic the kinetics of the cytosolic Ca2+ increase evoked by either agent(More)
The c-erbB-2 product is thought to be a unique and useful target for antibody therapy of cancers overexpressing the c-erbB-2 gene. In vitro and in vivo anti-tumour effects of a humanised antibody against the extracellular domain of the c-erbB-2 gene product, rhu4D5, were examined. Rhu4D5 was less effective than its murine counterpart, mu4D5, for the direct(More)
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect several forms of adenylyl cyclase (AC's) expressed in human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were synthesized based on the conserved sequences in the C2a area of the AC's. HEL cells were found to contain mRNA for type III and type VI AC. In addition, a novel AC message was(More)
Ethanol can enhance G(salpha)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity. Of the nine isoforms of AC, type 7 (AC7) is the most sensitive to ethanol. The potentiation of AC7 by ethanol is dependent on protein kinase C (PKC). We designed studies to determine which PKC isotype(s) are involved in the potentiation of Galpha(s)-activated AC7 activity by ethanol(More)
BACKGROUND The activity of adenylyl cyclase (AC) is enhanced by pharmacologically relevant concentrations of ethanol. The enhancing effect of ethanol on AC activity is AC isoform-specific. Therefore, we hypothesized that within a cyclic AMP-generating system, AC is the target of ethanol's action and that ethanol-sensitive AC molecules contain structural(More)
Major depression represents a complex mental disorder. The identification of biological markers that define subtypes of major depressive disorder would greatly facilitate appropriate medical treatments, as well as provide insight into etiology. Reduced activity of the cAMP signaling system has been implicated in the etiology of major depression. Previous(More)
A number of the currently described adenylyl cyclase species can be regulated by Ca2+ in the submicromolar concentration range in in vitro assays. The regulatory significance of these observations hinges on whether a physiological elevation in intracellular Ca2+ can regulate these cyclase activities in intact cells. However, achieving a physiological(More)
Our studies indicate that, in the presence of particular isoforms of adenylyl cyclase (i.e., type 7 AC), moderately intoxicating concentrations of ethanol will significantly potentiate transmitter-mediated activation of the cAMP signaling cascade. Activation of this signaling cascade may have important implications for the mechanisms by which ethanol(More)