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In this paper, we consider the model that the information on the rewards in vector-valued Markov decision processes includes imprecision or ambiguity. The fuzzy reward model is analyzed as follows: The fuzzy reward is represented by the fuzzy set on the multi-dimensional Euclidian space R p and the infinite horizon fuzzy expected discounted reward(FEDR)(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to reveal the clinical characteristics of nonleukemic granulocytic sarcoma (GS) and an association between the therapeutic regimens and the nonleukemic period. METHOD Clinical records of 2 patients reported here and 72 patients gathered using a literature search on Medline from other institutions were analyzed. The(More)
We consider utility-constrained Markov decision processes. The expected utility of the total discounted reward is maximized subject to multiple expected utility constraints. By introducing a corresponding Lagrange function, a saddle-point theorem of the utility constrained optimization is derived. The existence of a constrained optimal policy is(More)
In this paper, a Markov decision model with uncertain transition matrices, which allow a matrix to fluctuate at each step in time, is described by the use of fuzzy sets. We find a pareto optimal policy maximizing the infinite horizon fuzzy expected discounted reward over all stationary policies under some partial order. The pareto optimal policies are(More)
In this paper, the average cases of Markov decision processes with uncertainty is considered. That is, a controlled Markov set-chain model with a finite state and action space is developed by an interval arithmetic analysis, and we will find a Pareto optimal policy which maximizes the average expected rewards over all stationary policies under a new partial(More)
We demonstrate that fiber-based frequency combs with multi-branch configurations can transfer both linewidth and frequency stability to another wavelength at the millihertz level. An intra-cavity electro-optic modulator is employed to obtain a broad servo bandwidth for repetition rate control. We investigate the relative linewidths between two combs using a(More)
This paper discusses two topics on fuzzy random variables in decision making. One is a new evaluation method of fuzzy random variables, and the other is to present a mathematical model in financial engineering by fuzzy random variables. The evaluation method is introduced as mean values defined by fuzzy measures, and it is also applicable to fuzzy numbers(More)