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Inhibition of an ongoing reaction tendency for adaptation to changing environments is a major function of the human prefrontal cortex. This function has been investigated frequently using the go/no-go task and set-shifting tasks such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Studies in humans and monkeys suggest the involvement of the dorsolateral(More)
1. Two types of calcium currents, the transient type and long-lasting type, were examined by both whole-cell and cell-attached patch-clamp modes in single isolated sino-atrial node cells of the rabbit. 2. In the whole-cell clamp mode, in response to a depolarizing pulse to -40 mV from a holding potential of -80 mV, a transient type calcium current with an(More)
The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, which probes the ability to shift attention from one category of stimulus attributes to another (shifting cognitive sets), is the most common paradigm used to detect human frontal lobe pathology. However, the exact relationship of this card test to prefrontal function and the precise anatomical localization of the cognitive(More)
The mechanism of muscarinic inhibition of the Ca-current (ICa) was studied in ventricular myocytes of guinea pig hearts and the following results were obtained. Acetylcholine (ACh) in concentrations up to 10(-4) M had little effect, if any, on ICa in control cells. ACh reduced the isoprenaline (ISP)-induced increase of ICa. The dose-response-relation (ISP(More)
In a wide variety of cells, various intracellular agents, such as Ca2+, ATP and cyclic nucleotides, regulate ionic conductances of the membrane. In cardiac cells, the intracellular Na+ concentration [( Na+]i) frequently increases when a disturbance occurs in the electrogenic Na-K pump activity or the Na-Ca exchange mechanism. We have investigated a possible(More)
In spite of intensive and increasingly successful attempts to determine the multiple steps involved in colorectal carcinogenesis, the mechanisms responsible for metastasis of colorectal tumors to the liver remain to be clarified. To identify genes that are candidates for involvement in the metastatic process, we analyzed genome-wide expression profiles of(More)
Dose-response relations for the increase in the amplitude of Ca current (ICa) on external application of isoprenaline (ISP) and internally applied cyclic AMP (cAMP) or catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (C subunit) were established in single ventricular cells of the guinea pig. An intracellular dialysis technique was used. The threshold(More)
The activities of 5'-nucleotidase, 2'-nucleotidase, alkaline phosphatase, and acid phosphatase were measured in rat and autopsied human brains. The four phosphatases in the rat brain showed little change in activity after death. The activities of adenosine-producing enzymes were compared in various parts of rat and human brains. When phosphatase activity(More)
Two cases with C2 segmental type of vertebral artery (VA) were reported. One case was a 64-year-old man, who was referred to our hospital suffering from vertigo, ataxia, and right facial palsy. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed multiple lacunae in the basal ganglia bilaterally. Another case was a 47-year-old man, complaining of left hemiparesthesia. A(More)
We have previously shown that sialyl Lewisx antigen (sLex) (NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-4(Fuc alpha 1-3)GlcNAC-R) has an important functional role in defining the invasion and metastasis of human colorectal carcinoma. The results were derived from the clinical specimens obtained at surgery or experimental metastasis of human colon carcinoma variant expressing(More)