Masako Yamada

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To determine whether Ca2+ promotes powdery mildew penetration, Ca2+-treated barley coleoptiles were inoculated with conidia of pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungi. Penetration efficiency of the pathogenic powdery mildew Blumeria graminis was enhanced by Ca2+ treatment, but that of the necrotrophic pathogen Helminthosporium sp. remained unaffected. Similarly,(More)
We study the new water model proposed by Mahoney and Jorgensen [J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8910 (2000)], which is closer to real water than previously proposed classical pairwise additive potentials. We simulate the model in a wide range of deeply supercooled states and find (i) the existence of a nonmonotonic "nose-shaped" temperature of maximum density line and(More)
To study the coexistence of two liquid states of water within one simulation box, we implement an equilibrium sedimentation method--which involves applying a gravitational field to the system and measuring or calculating the resulting density profile in equilibrium. We simulate a system of particles interacting via the Stillinger-2 (ST2) potential, a model(More)
We explore millimeter line diagnostics of an obscuring molecular torus mod-eled by a hydrodynamic simulation with three-dimensional non-local thermody-namic equilibrium (nonLTE) radiative transfer calculations. Based on the results of high-resolution hydrodynamic simulation of the molecular torus around an active galactic nucleus (AGN), we calculate(More)
Results of three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of field-reversed configurations (FRCs) are presented. The emphasis of this work is on the nonlinear evolution of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in kinetic FRCs and the new FRC formation method by counter-helicity spheromak merging. Kinetic simulations show nonlinear saturation of the n = 1(More)
We improve a lattice model of water introduced by Sastry, Debenedetti, Sciortino, and Stanley to give insight on experimental thermodynamic anomalies in supercooled phase, taking into account the correlations between intra-molecular orientational degrees of freedom. The original Sastry et al. model including energetic, entropic and volumic effect of the(More)
We discuss the fragmentation of primordial gas clouds in the universe after decoupling. Comparing the timescale of collapse with that of fragmentation, we obtain the typical mass of a fragment both numerically and analytically. We show that the estimated mass gives the minimum mass of a fragment that is formed from the primordial gas cloud and essentially(More)
We reexamine the thermal evolution of the postshock layer in primordial gas clouds. Comparing the time scales, we nd that the evolutionary paths of postshock regions in primordial gas clouds are basically understood by the diagram drawn on ionization degree v.s. temperature plane. The results obtained from the diagram are independent of the density, in case(More)