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Absence of functional FMRP causes Fragile X syndrome. Abnormalities in synaptic processes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus contribute to cognitive deficits in Fragile X patients. So far, the potential roles of cerebellar deficits have not been investigated. Here, we demonstrate that both global and Purkinje cell-specific knockouts of Fmr1 show(More)
BACKGROUND Eldecalcitol is an analog of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) that improves bone mineral density; however, the effect of eldecalcitol on the risk of fractures is unclear. The objective of this study is to examine whether eldecalcitol is superior to alfacalcidol in preventing osteoporotic fractures. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov,(More)
CONTEXT Weekly teriparatide injection at a dose of 56.5 μg has been shown to increase bone mineral density. OBJECTIVE A phase 3 study was conducted to determine the efficacy of once-weekly teriparatide injection for reducing the incidence of vertebral fractures in patients with osteoporosis. DESIGN AND SETTING In this randomized, multicenter,(More)
BACKGROUND The plexiform lesion is the hallmark of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, its genesis and hemodynamic effects are largely unknown because of the limited availability of lung tissue samples from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and the lack of appropriate animal models. This study investigated whether rats with severe(More)
Pattern classification is very unique in traditional medicine. Kampo medical patterns have transformed over time during Japan's history. In the 17th to 18th centuries, Japanese doctors advocated elimination of the Ming medical theory and followed the basic concepts put forth by Shang Han Lun and Jin Gui Yao Lue in the later Han dynasty (25-220 AD). The(More)
Bone remodeling is performed by osteoclasts and osteoblasts at the bone surface. Inside of bone is a network of numerous osteocytes, whose specific function has remained an enigma. Here we describe a transgenic mouse model in which inducible and specific ablation of osteocytes is achieved in vivo through targeted expression of diphtheria toxin (DT)(More)
In order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intermittent subcutaneous administration of 1-34 N-terminal peptide of human parathyroid hormone (hPTH 1-34), 100 units of hPTH 1-34 was subcutaneously injected once a week for 1 year in ten patients with primary osteoporsis (one male and nine females) with no qualitative abnormality of the bone according to(More)
We investigated the differences in three-dimensional microstructure of bone in cases of osteopenia caused by two different procedures: ovariectomy (ovx) and sciatic neurectomy (nx). Thirty-nine 8-week-old female Lewis rats were divided into two groups: (1) ovx and sham operation; and (2) nx and sham operation. At 12 weeks of age these rats were killed to(More)
CONTEXT Denosumab 60 mg sc injection every 6 months for 36 months was well tolerated and effective in reducing the incidence of vertebral, nonvertebral, and hip fracture in predominantly Caucasian postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE The objective of this phase 3 fracture study was to examine the antifracture efficacy and safety of denosumab(More)
Iliac bone samples were obtained from 50 women with osteoarthrosis of the hip (50-80 years of age) during hip surgery for total hip joint replacement. After determining the resolution and threshold for the binary image, the two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) data of the trabecular structure were obtained in these iliac bone samples using(More)