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The 20S proteasome is the catalytic portion of the 26S proteasome. Constitutively expressed mammalian 20S proteasomes have three active subunits, beta 1, beta 2, and beta 5, which are replaced in the immunoproteasome by interferon-gamma-inducible subunits beta 1i, beta 2i, and beta 5i, respectively. Here we determined the crystal structure of the bovine 20S(More)
Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the regiospecific conversion of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron through three successive oxygenation reactions. HO catalysis is unique in that all three O(2) activations are performed by the substrate itself. This Forum Article overviews our current understanding on the structural and biochemical properties of HO(More)
Heme oxygenase (HO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the regiospecific conversion of heme to biliverdin IXalpha, CO, and free iron. In mammals, HO has a variety of physiological functions, including heme catabolism, iron homeostasis, antioxidant defense, cellular signaling, and O(2) sensing. The enzyme is also found in plants (producing light-harvesting(More)
The crystal structure of the 20S proteasome from bovine liver was determined by the molecular replacement method using the structure of the 20S proteasome from the yeast Sacccharomyces cerevisiae. The initial phases were refined by density modification coupled with non-crystallographic symmetry averaging. The structural model was refined with the program(More)
Protein-to-protein electron transfer (ET) is a critical process in biological chemistry for which fundamental understanding is expected to provide a wealth of applications in biotechnology. Investigations of protein-protein ET systems in reductive activation of artificial cofactors introduced into proteins remains particularly challenging because of the(More)
Epithelial Ca(2+)-regulation, which governs cornified envelope formation in the skin epidermis and hair follicles, closely coincides with the expression of S100A3, filaggrin and trichohyalin, and the post-translational modification of these proteins by Ca(2+)-dependent peptidylarginine deiminases. This review summarizes the current nomenclature and(More)
HmuO, a heme oxygenase of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, catalyzes degradation of heme using the same mechanism as the mammalian enzyme. The oxy form of HmuO, the precursor of the catalytically active ferric hydroperoxo species, has been characterized by ligand binding kinetics, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray crystallography. The oxygen association(More)
The cytochrome (Cyt) c-554 in thermophilic green photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum serves as an intermediate electron carrier, transferring electrons to the membrane-bound Cyt c z from various enzymes involved in the oxidations of sulfide, thiosulfate, and sulfite compounds. Spectroscopically, this protein exhibits an asymmetric α-absorption(More)