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The 20S proteasome is the catalytic portion of the 26S proteasome. Constitutively expressed mammalian 20S proteasomes have three active subunits, beta 1, beta 2, and beta 5, which are replaced in the immunoproteasome by interferon-gamma-inducible subunits beta 1i, beta 2i, and beta 5i, respectively. Here we determined the crystal structure of the bovine 20S(More)
Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the regiospecific conversion of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron through three successive oxygenation reactions. HO catalysis is unique in that all three O(2) activations are performed by the substrate itself. This Forum Article overviews our current understanding on the structural and biochemical properties of HO(More)
Epithelial Ca(2+)-regulation, which governs cornified envelope formation in the skin epidermis and hair follicles, closely coincides with the expression of S100A3, filaggrin and trichohyalin, and the post-translational modification of these proteins by Ca(2+)-dependent peptidylarginine deiminases. This review summarizes the current nomenclature and(More)
Heme oxygenase catalyzes the degradation of heme to biliverdin, iron, and carbon monoxide. Here, we present crystal structures of the substrate-free, Fe(3+)-biliverdin-bound, and biliverdin-bound forms of HmuO, a heme oxygenase from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, refined to 1.80, 1.90, and 1.85 Å resolution, respectively. In the substrate-free structure, the(More)
In the presence of calcium ions, human peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) converts arginine residues in proteins to citrulline. Of the five known human PAD enzymes, the type III isozyme (PAD3) exhibits the highest specificity for synthetic and natural substrates. This study aimed to determine the structure of PAD3 in order to elucidate its selective(More)
Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD; EC is a post-translational modification enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of arginine in protein molecules to a citrulline residue in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. In this study, we determined the structure of an active form of human PAD1 crystallized in the presence of Ca(2+) at 3.2-Å resolution. Although human(More)
This article discusses the accuracy of X-ray structural studies of heme oxygenase (HO) in complex with an unstable intermediate, verdoheme. Heme degradation by HO proceeds through three successive steps of O(2) activation. The mechanism of the third step, the ring opening of verdoheme, has been the least understood. Recent structural studies of the(More)
The crystal structure of the 20S proteasome from bovine liver was determined by the molecular replacement method using the structure of the 20S proteasome from the yeast Sacccharomyces cerevisiae. The initial phases were refined by density modification coupled with non-crystallographic symmetry averaging. The structural model was refined with the program(More)