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Relaxin 3/INSL 7 has recently been identified as a new member of the insulin/relaxin superfamily. Although it was reported to be dominantly expressed in the brain, its detailed distribution and function in the central nervous system are still obscure. In the present study we demonstrated that in the rat relaxin 3 was mainly expressed in neurons of the(More)
Nociceptive neurons within dorsal root ganglia (DRG) express multiple voltage-gated sodium channels, of which the tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) channel Na(v)1.8 has been suggested to play a major role in inflammatory pain. Previous work has shown that acute administration of inflammatory mediators, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), serotonin, and(More)
Anatomical and physiological studies have shown that the "frontal pursuit area" (FPA) in the arcuate cortex of monkeys is involved in the control of smooth pursuit eye movements. To further analyze the signals carried by the FPA, we examined the activity of pursuit-related neurons recorded from a discrete region near the arcuate spur during a variety of(More)
Fat tissue produces a variety of secreted proteins (adipocytokines) with important roles in metabolism. We isolated a newly identified adipocytokine, visfatin, that is highly enriched in the visceral fat of both humans and mice and whose expression level in plasma increases during the development of obesity. Visfatin corresponds to a protein identified(More)
Periarcuate frontal cortex is involved in the control of smooth pursuit eye movements, but its role remains unclear. To better understand the control of pursuit by the "frontal pursuit area" (FPA), we applied electrical microstimulation when the monkeys were performing a variety of oculomotor tasks. In agreement with previous studies, electrical stimulation(More)
Somatosensory axon outgrowth is repulsed when soluble semaphorin D (semD) binds to growth cone neuropilin-1 (Npn-1). Here, semD ligand binding studies of Npn-1 mutants demonstrate that the sema domain binds to the amino-terminal quarter, or complement-binding (CUB) domain, of Npn-1. By herpes simplex virus- (HSV-) mediated expression of Npn-1 mutants in(More)
We often generate movements without any external event that immediately triggers them. How the brain decides the timing of self-initiated movements remains unclear. Previous studies suggest that the basal ganglia-thalamocortical pathways play this role, but the subcortical signals that determine movement timing have not been identified. The present study(More)
Vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) is essential to the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia. We investigated whether inflammation can increase in VR1 positive neuronal profiles in rat DRG neurons using histochemical methods. We also used size frequency analysis and double staining with several neuronal markers to investigate whether or not inflammation alters(More)
To examine the effects of smooth-pursuit eye movements on the initiation of saccades, their latency was measured when subjects initially fixated or pursued a target. In half of the block of trials, the fixation or pursuit target was extinguished 200 ms before the saccade target was illuminated (gap trials). Reduction of the mean saccade latency in the gap(More)
The antisaccade task has been widely used to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying volitional movement control. In this task, subjects suppress reflexive saccades to the sudden appearance of peripheral visual stimuli (prosaccades) and generate a saccade in the opposite direction. Recent imaging studies suggest that the globus pallidus (GP) is(More)