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Laughter or smile is one of the emotional expressions of pleasantness with characteristic contraction of the facial muscles, of which the neural substrate remains to be explored. This currently described study is the first to investigate the generation of human facial expression of pleasant emotion using positron emission tomography and H(2)(15)O. Regional(More)
The localization of microelectrode recording sites in the layers of primate cerebral cortex permits the analysis of relationships between recorded neuronal activities and underlying anatomical connections. We present a magnetic resonance imaging method for precise in vivo localization of cortical recording sites. In this method, the susceptibility-induced(More)
The perirhinal cortex, which is critical for long-term stimulus-stimulus associative memory, consists of two cytoarchitectonically distinct subdivisions: area 35 (A35) and area 36 (A36). Previous electrophysiological studies suggested that macaque A36 is involved in both association and retrieval processes during a visual pair-association task. However, the(More)
Lactate (or its protonated form: lactic acid) has been studied by many exercise scientists. The lactate paradigm has been in constant change since lactate was first discovered in 1780. For many years, it was unfairly seen as primarily responsible for muscular fatigue during exercise and a waste product of glycolysis. The status of lactate has slowly changed(More)
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by granulomatous inflammation in the wall of medium-sized and large-sized arteries, and it usually occurs in patients over 50 years of age.(1)) Symptoms are nonspecific, and include fatigue, fever, and headache.(2)) It is occasionally combined with aortic complications, and ruptures resulting(More)
Functional imaging technique using positron emission tomography (PET) has made it possible to localize functional brain regions in the human brain by detecting changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Performing PET studies in the monkey will aid in integrating monkey electrophysiological research with human PET studies. We examined changes in rCBF(More)
By recalling gustatory memories, it is possible to generate vivid gustatory perceptions in the absence of gustatory inputs. This gustatory image influences our gustatory processing. However, the mechanism of the "top-down" modulation of gustatory perception in the human is still unclear. Our findings propose a new perspective on the neural basis of(More)
We investigated the contribution of the inferior temporal (IT) cortical neurons to the active maintenance of internal representations. The activity of single neurons in the IT cortex was recorded while the monkeys performed a sequential-type associative memory task in which distractor stimuli interrupted the delay epoch between the cue and target(More)
The macaque inferotemporal cortex, which is involved in encoding and retrieval of visual long-term memory, consists of two distinct but mutually interconnected areas: area TE (TE) and area 36 (A36). In the present study, we compared delay-period activities of the two subdivisions in terms of their signal contents. We recorded single-unit activities from TE(More)
The porpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise habituation on body composition and anthropometric characteristics in cardiac patients. The subjects, comprising 20 patients with coronary heart disease, aged 43–69, participated in our supervised exercise programme for 38.0 (SD 12.5) weeks while in hospital. The intensity of most exercise(More)