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Cone photoreceptor cells of fish retinae are arranged in a highly organized fashion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying photoreceptor development and retinal pattern formation are largely unknown. Here we established transgenic lines of zebrafish carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP) cDNA with the 5.5-kb upstream region of the(More)
Zebrafish have two red, LWS-1 and LWS-2, and four green, RH2-1, RH2-2, RH2-3 and RH2-4, opsin genes encoding photopigments with distinct absorption spectra. Occurrence of opsin subtypes by gene duplication is characteristic of fish but little is known whether the subtypes are expressed differently in the retina, either spatially or temporally. Here we show(More)
The turtle shell offers a fascinating case study of vertebrate evolution, based on the modification of a common body plan. The carapace is formed from ribs, which encapsulate the scapula; this stands in contrast to the typical amniote body plan and serves as a key to understanding turtle evolution. Comparative analyses of musculoskeletal development between(More)
In jawed vertebrates, the Dlx code, or nested expression patterns of Dlx genes, specify the dorsoventral polarity of pharyngeal arches, downstream of endothelin-1 (Edn-1) and its effectors, Bapx1 (Nkx3.2) and dHand (Hand2). To elucidate the evolution of the specification mechanism of the oropharyngeal skeletal system, lamprey homologs of Dlx, Edn,(More)
Cone photoreceptors in fish are typically arranged into a precise, reiterated pattern known as a "cone mosaic." Cone mosaic patterns can vary in different fish species and in response to changes in habitat, yet their function and the mechanisms of their development remain speculative. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have four cone subtypes arranged into precise(More)
Because of their crucial phylogenetic positions, hagfishes, sharks, and bichirs are recognized as key taxa in our understanding of vertebrate evolution. The expression patterns of the regulatory genes involved in developmental patterning have been analyzed in the context of evolutionary developmental studies. However, in a survey of public sequence(More)
The group of Dlx genes belongs to the homeobox-containing superfamily, and its members are involved in various morphogenetic processes. In vertebrate genomes, Dlx genes exist as multiple paralogues generated by tandem duplication followed by whole genome duplications. In this review, we provide an overview of the Dlx gene phylogeny with an emphasis on the(More)
Proper visual function of the vertebrate retina requires the maintenance of the integrity of the retinal outer nuclear layer (ONL), which is often affected in many blinding human retinal diseases. While the structural integrity of the ONL has long been considered to be maintained primarily through the outer limiting membrane (OLM), we have little knowledge(More)
Opsin genes are expressed in a cell type-specific manner in the retina and the pineal organ for visual and nonvisual photoreceptive purposes, but the regulatory mechanism behind the tissue and cell selectivity is not well understood. In this study, we focus on the expression regulation of the blue-sensitive opsin gene SWS2 of zebrafish by taking a(More)
Agnathan lampreys retain ancestral characteristics of vertebrates in the morphology of skeletal muscles derived from two mesodermal regions: trunk myotomes and unsegmented head mesoderm. During lamprey development, some populations of myoblasts migrate via pathways that differ from those of gnathostomes. To investigate the evolution of skeletal muscle(More)