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The "hydraulic city" of Angkor, the capitol of the Khmer Empire in Cambodia, experienced decades-long drought interspersed with intense monsoons in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that, in combination with other factors, contributed to its eventual demise. The climatic evidence comes from a seven-and-a-half century robust hydroclimate reconstruction(More)
BACKGROUND In the absence of stimuli, most motile eukaryotic cells move by spontaneously coordinating cell deformation with cell movement in the absence of stimuli. Yet little is known about how cells change their own shape and how cells coordinate the deformation and movement. Here, we investigated the mechanism of spontaneous cell migration by using(More)
Biological processes are governed by complex networks ranging from gene regulation to signal transduction. Positive feedback is a key element in such networks. The regulation enables cells to adopt multiple internal expression states in response to a single external input signal. However, past works lacked a dynamical aspect of this system. To address the(More)
The effect of acute hypertension, induced in rats by intravenous injection of methoxamine chloride (Mexan), on the stria vascularis and spiral ligament was studied electronmicroscopically with the tracer method of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Considerable extravasation of HRP occurred in the stria vascularis, due to the increased vesicular transport. The(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the myelination progression course in language-correlated regions of children with normal brain development by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis compared with histological studies. METHODS The subjects were 241 neurologically intact neonates, infants and young children (128 boys and 113 girls) who underwent(More)
We present a 4D (x; y; z; t) force map of Dictyostelium cells crawling on a soft gel substrate. Vertical forces are of the same order as the tangential ones. The cells pull the substratum upward along the cell, medium, or substratum contact line and push it downward under the cell except for the pseudopods. We demonstrate quantitatively that the variations(More)
Network connectivities ((-)k) of cortical neural cultures are studied by synchronized firing and determined from measured correlations between fluorescence intensities of firing neurons. The bursting frequency (f) during synchronized firing of the networks is found to be an increasing function of (-)k. With f taken to be proportional to (-)k, a simple(More)
The distribution of forces exerted by migrating Dictyostelium amebae at different developmental stages was measured using traction force microscopy. By using very soft polyacrylamide substrates with a high fluorescent bead density, we could measure stresses as small as 30 Pa. Remarkable differences exist both in term of the magnitude and distribution of(More)
Algorithms where offsprings (new search points) are generated according to the estimated probability model of the good parents are called the Probabilistic Model-Building Genetic Algorithms (PMBGAs). In this paper, a new model of PMBGA, Distributed PMBGA (DPMBGA), is proposed. In the DPMBGA, the correlation between the design variables is considered by PCA(More)
The pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized to be inflammation-associated degeneration of vascular wall. Neovascularization is regularly found in human AAA and considered to play critical roles in the development and rupture of AAA. However, little is known about lymphangiogenesis in AAA. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate(More)