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In 1929, Leó Szilárd invented a feedback protocol1 in which a hypothetical intelligence—dubbed Maxwell’s demon—pumps heat from an isothermal environment and transforms it into work. After a long-lasting and intense controversy it was finally clarified that the demon’s role does not contradict the second law of thermodynamics, implying that we can, in(More)
Biological processes are governed by complex networks ranging from gene regulation to signal transduction. Positive feedback is a key element in such networks. The regulation enables cells to adopt multiple internal expression states in response to a single external input signal. However, past works lacked a dynamical aspect of this system. To address the(More)
BACKGROUND In the absence of stimuli, most motile eukaryotic cells move by spontaneously coordinating cell deformation with cell movement in the absence of stimuli. Yet little is known about how cells change their own shape and how cells coordinate the deformation and movement. Here, we investigated the mechanism of spontaneous cell migration by using(More)
We measured the elastic response of single DNA molecules at various concentrations of the trivalent cation, spermidine. When added spermidine caused the DNA to collapse, the force-extension curves showed either plateaus or stick-release patterns depending on the concentration. The periodic stick-release response determines a characteristic length, which may(More)
The location of lesions causing hearing loss in patients with cerebral palsy due to asphyxia or neonatal hyperbilirubinemia has remained unclear. We performed behavioral audiometry, distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and auditory brainstem evoked response (ABR) in six patients with cerebral palsy due to asphyxia or neonatal hyperbilirubinemia(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the early myelination patterns of the central auditory pathway and then compare the data with past histological research. We observe the MRI signal intensity of the central auditory pathway and clarify the time course difference between MRI and previous(More)
We present a 4D (x; y; z; t) force map of Dictyostelium cells crawling on a soft gel substrate. Vertical forces are of the same order as the tangential ones. The cells pull the substratum upward along the cell, medium, or substratum contact line and push it downward under the cell except for the pseudopods. We demonstrate quantitatively that the variations(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to investigate the early myelination patterns of brainstem auditory nuclei and pathway on magnetic resonance imaging compared with past histological research. We aimed to identify the time course difference in myelination of the brainstem auditory nuclei and pathway between magnetic resonance imaging and histological(More)
The repeated-dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect hepatocarcinogens. We conducted a collaborative study to assess the performance of this assay and to evaluate the possibility of integrating it into general toxicological studies. Twenty-four testing laboratories belonging to the Mammalian Mutagenicity(More)
This is a comprehensive report on the phase transition between two turbulent states of electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals, which was recently found by the authors to be in the directed percolation (DP) universality class [K. A. Takeuchi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 234503 (2007)]. We further investigate both static and dynamic critical behaviors of this(More)