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The "hydraulic city" of Angkor, the capitol of the Khmer Empire in Cambodia, experienced decades-long drought interspersed with intense monsoons in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that, in combination with other factors, contributed to its eventual demise. The climatic evidence comes from a seven-and-a-half century robust hydroclimate reconstruction(More)
We measured the elastic response of single DNA molecules at various concentrations of the trivalent cation, spermidine. When added spermidine caused the DNA to collapse, the force-extension curves showed either plateaus or stick-release patterns depending on the concentration. The periodic stick-release response determines a characteristic length, which may(More)
We present a 4D (x; y; z; t) force map of Dictyostelium cells crawling on a soft gel substrate. Vertical forces are of the same order as the tangential ones. The cells pull the substratum upward along the cell, medium, or substratum contact line and push it downward under the cell except for the pseudopods. We demonstrate quantitatively that the variations(More)
BACKGROUND In the absence of stimuli, most motile eukaryotic cells move by spontaneously coordinating cell deformation with cell movement in the absence of stimuli. Yet little is known about how cells change their own shape and how cells coordinate the deformation and movement. Here, we investigated the mechanism of spontaneous cell migration by using(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the early myelination patterns of the central auditory pathway and then compare the data with past histological research. We observe the MRI signal intensity of the central auditory pathway and clarify the time course difference between MRI and previous(More)
We report a quantitative measurement of traction stress exerted by dividing eukaryotic cells. The stress field was highly dynamic and sequentially changed as follows: (1) strong and localized as two spots, (2) weak and broadly distributed, and (3) strong and localized as four spots. At the final stage of cytokinesis, the dividing cells exerted strong(More)
We report a 67-year-old woman with small cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx, a very rare entity with few reports. Our treatment consisted of carboplatin (CBDCA) and etoposide (VP-16) in the same way as small cell carcinoma of the lung is treated. This achieved a complete response. Our case suggests that chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide is(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent studies suggest that biologic changes in the vein wall associated with varicose veins (VVs) occur not only in valvular tissue but also in nonvalvular regions. We previously used imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to determine the distribution of lipid molecules in incompetent valve tissue. In this study, we used IMS to analyze incompetent(More)
The pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized to be inflammation-associated degeneration of vascular wall. Neovascularization is regularly found in human AAA and considered to play critical roles in the development and rupture of AAA. However, little is known about lymphangiogenesis in AAA. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate(More)
Biological processes are governed by complex networks ranging from gene regulation to signal transduction. Positive feedback is a key element in such networks. The regulation enables cells to adopt multiple internal expression states in response to a single external input signal. However, past works lacked a dynamical aspect of this system. To address the(More)