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This study addresses a potentially general basis of measuring time in a biological timer. Here, we examined the effects of biogenic amines on the time-fixed post-copulatory sexually refractory stage (ca. 1 h) which is defined as the time interval between spermatophore protrusion and the onset of a calling or a mating response in the reproductive cycle of(More)
When exposed to light, planarians display a distinctive light avoidance behavior known as negative phototaxis. Such behavior is temporarily suppressed when animals are decapitated, and it is restored once the animals regenerate their heads. Head regeneration and the simple but reproducible phototactic response of planarians provides an opportunity to study(More)
We have investigated the morphology and physiology of the genitalia of the male cricket to establish a basis for neuroethological study of its reproductive behaviour. First, the structure of the phallic complex, including the dorsal pouch, guiding rod, epiphallus, ventral lobes and median pouch, are described, as are the muscles, cuticle, membranes and(More)
The reproductive cycle of the male cricket consists of the mating stage and the sexually refractory stage. The latter is further divided into the first refractory stage (RS1) from spermatophore extrusion in copulation to spermatophore preparation after copulation, and the second refractory stage (RS2) from spermatophore preparation to recommencement of a(More)
To understand the neural mechanisms of reproductive behaviour in the male cricket, we identified motor neurones innervating the muscles in each genital organ by backfilling with cobalt/nickel and recording their extracellular spike activity from nerve bundles of the terminal abdominal ganglion during tethered copulation and spermatophore formation. During(More)
The male and female genitalia are finely designed to match each other for copulation in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Copulatory acts of the male, stereotyped and time-fixed, are elicited by stimulation of mechanoreceptors on particular regions of the abdomen, cerci and genitalia. Sequential execution of each motor act proceeds as a chain reaction in(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES This study examined the effects of moderate renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of canagliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS Japanese patients with stable type 2 diabetes (12 with moderate renal impairment and 12 with normal renal function or mild renal impairment) were(More)
The location of the reproductive timer for the post-copulatory, time-fixed, sexually refractory stage was investigated in the male cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. This stage was defined as the interval between spermatophore protrusion and recommencement of copulation or a calling song. To inactivate the central nervous system locally and reversibly, different(More)
The arrangement of neuronal somata and their displacement during joint flexion together with the central projection of the pro- and metathoracic femoral chordotonal organs (FCOs) in the cricket were investigated. The FCO consists of the partially fused ventral and dorsal scoloparia in the proximal femur. The ventrally located neurones (the ventral group)(More)