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INTRODUCTION We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to study white matter integrity in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). METHODS The subjects comprised 20 patients (9 men, 11 women) with FTD and 17 age-matched healthy controls (9 men, 8 women). Based on the data obtained from DTI, we performed tractography of the major cerebral pathways,(More)
Much attention has focused on the insulin-like signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans because of its pivotal role in life-span determination and oxidative stress resistance. The daf-16 gene encodes a fork-head transcription factor that is negatively regulated by this insulin-signaling pathway. The DAF-16 protein is translocated to the nucleus when(More)
OBJECTIVE Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to secrete various cytokines that exhibit angiogenic and neurosupportive effects. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of MSC transplantation on diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) in rats. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS MSCs were isolated from bone marrow of adult rats and transplanted into(More)
Exercise has a variety of beneficial effects on brain structure and function, such as hippocampal neurogenesis, mood and memory. Previous studies have shown that exercise enhances hippocampal neurogenesis, induces antidepressant effects and improves learning behavior. Brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels increase following exercise, and the(More)
OBJECTIVE The therapeutic potential of exendin-4, an agonist of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), on diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice was investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The presence of the GLP-1R in lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was evaluated by immunohistochemical analyses. DRG(More)
BACKGROUND Supported by compelling genetic data regarding early-onset familial Alzheimer disease (AD), the amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta)-centric theory holds that Abeta is involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic AD. Mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) genes lead to increased Abeta levels before(More)
There is accumulating evidence that soluble amyloid-beta (Abeta) oligomers, rather than amyloid fibrils, are the principal pathogenic species in Alzheimer disease (AD). Here, we have developed a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for high-molecular-weight (HMW) Abeta oligomers. Analysis of Abeta oligomers derived from synthetic Abeta(More)
Surrogate markers for the Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated 42-amino acid form of amyloid-beta (Abeta42) have been sought because they may aid in the diagnosis of AD and for clarification of disease pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains three APLP1-derived Abeta-like peptides (APL1beta) that are generated by beta-(More)
We present two patients (case 1: a 78-year-old right-handed woman, case 2: a 66-year-old right-handed woman) with suspected transient global amnesia. Both patients showed sudden onset amnesia that appeared to resolve within 24 hours, and they showed no abnormal findings on electroencephalography or single photon emission tomography. However, the results of(More)