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Memory encoding occurs rapidly, but the consolidation of memory in the neocortex has long been held to be a more gradual process. We now report, however, that systems consolidation can occur extremely quickly if an associative "schema" into which new information is incorporated has previously been created. In experiments using a hippocampal-dependent(More)
When new learning occurs against the background of established prior knowledge, relevant new information can be assimilated into a schema and thereby expand the knowledge base. An animal model of this important component of memory consolidation reveals that systems memory consolidation can be very fast. In experiments with rats, we found that the(More)
Exposure to a relatively low dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodebenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during mid-gestation induces a reduction of ventral prostate weight in rat offspring. Recently we reported that a single administration of TCDD (12.5-800 ng/kg body weight) to pregnant Holtzman rats on gestational day (GD) 15 caused a decrease in androgen receptor (AR) mRNA(More)
Dioxin and its related compounds are suspected to cause neurological and nueroendocrinological disruption in human and laboratory animal offspring upon in utero and lactational exposure during growth and development. We tested the hypothesis by utilizing Long-Evans Hooded rats that perinatal exposure to dioxins affects the neocortical function and(More)
Exposure to environmental chemicals, including dioxins, is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. This study explored the hypothesis that in utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic congener among dioxins, aggravates this disease state later in adulthood. Pregnant C57Bl/6 J mice were(More)
Although the small GTPase Rho family Cdc42 has been shown to facilitate exocytosis through increasing the amount of hormones released, the precise mechanisms regulating the quantity of hormones released on exocytosis are not well understood. Here we show by live cell imaging analysis under TIRF microscope and immunocytochemical analysis under confocal(More)
An increasing prevalence of mental health problems has been partly ascribed to abnormal brain development that is induced upon exposure to environmental chemicals. However, it has been extremely difficult to detect and assess such causality particularly at low exposure levels. To address this question, we here investigated higher brain function in mice(More)
Ambient air ultrafine particles (UFPs) have gained enormous attention to many researchers with recent evidence showing them to have more hazardous effects on human health than larger ambient particles. Studies focusing the possibility of effects on brain are quite limited. To examine the effect of ultrafine carbon black (ufCB) on mice brain, we instilled(More)
Prevention of quality of life (QOL) deterioration is associated with the inhibition of geriatric diseases and the regulation of brain function. However, no substance is known that prevents the aging of both body and brain. It is known that polyamine concentrations in somatic tissues (including the brain) decrease with increasing age, and polyamine-rich(More)
In developing rats, sex differences in the number of apoptotic cells are found in the central division of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPNc), which is a significant component of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area, and in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV). Specifically, male rats have more apoptotic cells in the developing(More)