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Memory encoding occurs rapidly, but the consolidation of memory in the neocortex has long been held to be a more gradual process. We now report, however, that systems consolidation can occur extremely quickly if an associative "schema" into which new information is incorporated has previously been created. In experiments using a hippocampal-dependent(More)
When new learning occurs against the background of established prior knowledge, relevant new information can be assimilated into a schema and thereby expand the knowledge base. An animal model of this important component of memory consolidation reveals that systems memory consolidation can be very fast. In experiments with rats, we found that the(More)
Exposure to a relatively low dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodebenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during mid-gestation induces a reduction of ventral prostate weight in rat offspring. Recently we reported that a single administration of TCDD (12.5-800 ng/kg body weight) to pregnant Holtzman rats on gestational day (GD) 15 caused a decrease in androgen receptor (AR) mRNA(More)
Dioxin and its related compounds are suspected to cause neurological and nueroendocrinological disruption in human and laboratory animal offspring upon in utero and lactational exposure during growth and development. We tested the hypothesis by utilizing Long-Evans Hooded rats that perinatal exposure to dioxins affects the neocortical function and(More)
Exposure to environmental chemicals, including dioxins, is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. This study explored the hypothesis that in utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic congener among dioxins, aggravates this disease state later in adulthood. Pregnant C57Bl/6 J mice were(More)
Although the small GTPase Rho family Cdc42 has been shown to facilitate exocytosis through increasing the amount of hormones released, the precise mechanisms regulating the quantity of hormones released on exocytosis are not well understood. Here we show by live cell imaging analysis under TIRF microscope and immunocytochemical analysis under confocal(More)
An increasing prevalence of mental health problems has been partly ascribed to abnormal brain development that is induced upon exposure to environmental chemicals. However, it has been extremely difficult to detect and assess such causality particularly at low exposure levels. To address this question, we here investigated higher brain function in mice(More)
A histoanatomical context is imperative in an analysis of gene expression in a cell in a tissue to elucidate physiological function of the cell. In this study, we made technical advances in fluorescence laser microdissection (LMD) in combination with the absolute quantification of small amounts of mRNAs from a region of interest (ROI) in(More)
Ambient air ultrafine particles (UFPs) have gained enormous attention to many researchers with recent evidence showing them to have more hazardous effects on human health than larger ambient particles. Studies focusing the possibility of effects on brain are quite limited. To examine the effect of ultrafine carbon black (ufCB) on mice brain, we instilled(More)
Environmental-level in utero and lactational exposures to dioxins have been considered to affect brain functions of offspring. Here, we determined whether in utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and 2,3,7,8-tetrabromodibenzo-p-dioxin (TBDD), at the dose that does not harm the dams, affects the acquisition and(More)