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Memory encoding occurs rapidly, but the consolidation of memory in the neocortex has long been held to be a more gradual process. We now report, however, that systems consolidation can occur extremely quickly if an associative "schema" into which new information is incorporated has previously been created. In experiments using a hippocampal-dependent(More)
When new learning occurs against the background of established prior knowledge, relevant new information can be assimilated into a schema and thereby expand the knowledge base. An animal model of this important component of memory consolidation reveals that systems memory consolidation can be very fast. In experiments with rats, we found that the(More)
Although the small GTPase Rho family Cdc42 has been shown to facilitate exocytosis through increasing the amount of hormones released, the precise mechanisms regulating the quantity of hormones released on exocytosis are not well understood. Here we show by live cell imaging analysis under TIRF microscope and immunocytochemical analysis under confocal(More)
Recent studies have suggested that astrocytes release gliotransmitters (i.e., ATP, L-glutamate, D-serine, and peptide hormones) and participate actively in synaptic functioning. Although ATP release from astrocytes modulates the activity of neurons, the mechanisms regulating the ATP release from astrocytes and the source of ATP in astrocytes are not well(More)
Prevention of quality of life (QOL) deterioration is associated with the inhibition of geriatric diseases and the regulation of brain function. However, no substance is known that prevents the aging of both body and brain. It is known that polyamine concentrations in somatic tissues (including the brain) decrease with increasing age, and polyamine-rich(More)
An increasing prevalence of mental health problems has been partly ascribed to abnormal brain development that is induced upon exposure to environmental chemicals. However, it has been extremely difficult to detect and assess such causality particularly at low exposure levels. To address this question, we here investigated higher brain function in mice(More)
The dorsal raphe nucleus was destroyed (DRL) by a radiofrequency lesion generator in castrated male rats, and lordosis behavior was observed. Five weeks after the surgery, all animals were implanted with two Silastic tubes containing estradiol (E2). Behavioral tests were started 2 days after implantation of E2 and carried out every other day for 16 days.(More)
There has been a long-standing need to develop efficient and standardized behavioral test methods for evaluating higher-order brain functions in mice. Here, we developed and validated a behavioral flexibility test in mice using IntelliCage, a fully automated behavioral analysis system for mice in a group-housed environment. We first developed a "behavioral(More)
A histoanatomical context is imperative in an analysis of gene expression in a cell in a tissue to elucidate physiological function of the cell. In this study, we made technical advances in fluorescence laser microdissection (LMD) in combination with the absolute quantification of small amounts of mRNAs from a region of interest (ROI) in(More)
In developing rats, sex differences in the number of apoptotic cells are found in the central division of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPNc), which is a significant component of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area, and in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV). Specifically, male rats have more apoptotic cells in the developing(More)