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Human behavior is mostly composed of habitual actions that require little conscious control. Such actions may become invalid if the environment changes, at which point individuals need to switch behavior by overcoming habitual actions that are otherwise triggered automatically. It is unknown how the brain controls this type of behavioral switching. Here we(More)
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia is an important element of motor control. This is demonstrated by involuntary movements induced by STN lesions and the successful treatment of Parkinson's disease by STN stimulation. However, it is still unclear how individual STN neurons participate in motor control. Here, we report that the STN has a(More)
Most daily tasks are performed almost automatically, but occasionally it is necessary to alter a routine if something changes in the environment and the routine behavior becomes inappropriate. Such behavioral switching can occur either retroactively based on error feedback or proactively by detecting a contextual cue. Recent imaging and electrophysiological(More)
Although it has long been thought that the prefrontal cortex of primates is involved in the integrative regulation of behaviours, the neural architecture underlying specific aspects of cognitive behavioural planning has yet to be clarified. If subjects are required to remember a large number of complex motor sequences and plan to execute each of them(More)
To investigate how single neurons in the supplementary eye field (SEF) participate in sequential performance of multiple saccades, we analyzed presaccadic activity while monkeys were performing three saccades in six different orders from memory. The saccades in each sequence were separated by a fixation period and initiated from the same fixation point with(More)
Although much learning occurs through direct experience of errors, humans and other animals can learn from the errors of other individuals. The medial frontal cortex (MFC) processes self-generated errors, but the neuronal architecture and mechanisms underlying the monitoring of others' errors are poorly understood. Exploring such mechanisms is important, as(More)
The organization of a series of actions into an appropriate temporal order is of particular importance in the voluntary control of motor behavior. Previous reports have emphasized the importance of medial motor areas for the temporal organization of movements. The aim of this study was to compare the neuronal activity in the supplementary and frontal eye(More)
We examined the location and spatial distribution of prefrontal cortical (PF) cells projecting to the supplementary eye field (SEF) and presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) using a double retrograde-labeling technique in monkeys (Macaca fuscata). The SEF and pre-SMA were physiologically identified based on the findings of intracortical microstimulation and(More)
A neurosurgical intervention that has shown potential for treating basal ganglia (BG) mediated motor tics involves high-frequency deep brain stimulation (HF-DBS) targeted to the output nucleus of the BG: the globus pallidus internus (GPi). This study used a nonhuman primate (Macaca fuscata) model of BG-meditated motor tics, and investigated the short-term(More)
Successful social interaction depends on not only the ability to identify with others but also the ability to distinguish between aspects of self and others. Although there is considerable knowledge of a shared neural substrate between self-action and others' action, it remains unknown where and how in the brain the action of others is uniquely represented.(More)