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Influenza A viruses cause recurrent outbreaks at local or global scale with potentially severe consequences for human health and the global economy. Recently, a new strain of influenza A virus was detected that causes disease in and transmits among humans, probably owing to little or no pre-existing immunity to the new strain. On 11 June 2009 the World(More)
Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A viruses occasionally infect humans, but currently do not transmit efficiently among humans. The viral haemagglutinin (HA) protein is a known host-range determinant as it mediates virus binding to host-specific cellular receptors. Here we assess the molecular changes in HA that would allow a virus possessing subtype(More)
The complete nucleotide sequences of the DNA of three hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes of subtype adw, cloned from plasma samples of asymptomatic carriers living in the mainland and Okinawa Prefecture of Japan and Indonesia were determined. All three comprised 3215 bp and differed in sequence by only 3.9 to 5.6%. When these isolates were compared with the(More)
Ebolavirus (EBOV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that causes severe hemorrhagic fever with mortality rates of up to 90% in humans and nonhuman primates. Previous studies suggest roles for clathrin- or caveolae-mediated endocytosis in EBOV entry; however, ebolavirus virions are long, filamentous particles that are larger than the(More)
Avian influenza A viruses rarely infect humans; however, when human infection and subsequent human-to-human transmission occurs, worldwide outbreaks (pandemics) can result. The recent sporadic infections of humans in China with a previously unrecognized avian influenza A virus of the H7N9 subtype (A(H7N9)) have caused concern owing to the appreciable case(More)
Two amino acids (lysine at position 627 or asparagine at position 701) in the polymerase subunit PB2 protein are considered critical for the adaptation of avian influenza A viruses to mammals. However, the recently emerged pandemic H1N1 viruses lack these amino acids. Here, we report that a basic amino acid at position 591 of PB2 can compensate for the lack(More)
Although some studies have indicated that endometriosis may increase the risk of developing ovarian cancer, there are no data from epidemiologic studies in Japan. We prospectively analyzed all cases of ovarian endometrioma enrolled in the prefecture-wide Shizuoka Cohort Study on Endometriosis and Ovarian Cancer Programme, which was initiated in 1985. To(More)
From the plasma of a 54-year-old woman, who acquired the persistent carrier state of hepatitis B virus through materno-fetal transmission, 49 clones of viral genomes were propagated. They did not reveal any differences in the size and number of cleavage products with any of 11 restriction endonucleases. Randomly selected 5 clones were classified into 3(More)
In order to identify the human cortical areas involved in the auditory attention, neuromagnetic fields were recorded from 12 healthy adults with a 122-channel whole-head magnetometer while the subjects performed the auditory selective attention task. Randomized sequence of 900 Hz (P=0.9) and 950 Hz (P=0.1) tones was presented to each ear with random(More)
Arenaviruses are enveloped, negative-strand RNA viruses. For several arenaviruses, virus-like particle (VLP) formation requires the viral matrix Z protein. However, the mechanism by which viral ribonucleoprotein complexes are incorporated into virions is poorly understood. Here, we show that the expression of the Z protein and nucleoprotein (NP) of Mopeia(More)