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The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated endonuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has been demonstrated to be a robust genome engineering tool in a variety of organisms including plants. However, it has been shown that the CRISPR/Cas9 system cleaves genomic DNA sequences containing mismatches to the guide RNA strand. We(More)
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient tool used for genome editing in a variety of organisms. Despite several recent reports of successful targeted mutagenesis using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in plants, in each case the target gene of interest, the Cas9 expression system and guide-RNA (gRNA) used, and the tissues used for transformation and subsequent(More)
DNA damage checkpoints delay mitotic cell-cycle progression in response to DNA stress, stalling the cell cycle to allow time for repair. CDKB is a plant-specific cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) that is required for the G₂/M transition of the cell cycle. In Arabidopsis, DNA damage leads the degradation of CDKB2, and the subsequent G₂ arrest gives cells time to(More)
Frequency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis varies depending on Cas9 expression level and culture period of rice callus. Recent reports have demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can function as a sequence-specific nuclease in various plant species. Induction of mutation in proliferating tissue during embryogenesis or in germline cells is a(More)
Accurate and effective positive marker excision is indispensable for the introduction of desired mutations into the plant genome via gene targeting (GT) using a positive/negative counter selection system. In mammals, the moth-derived piggyBac transposon system has been exploited successfully to eliminate a selectable marker from a GT locus without leaving a(More)
Precise genome engineering via homologous recombination (HR)-mediated gene targeting (GT) has become an essential tool in molecular breeding as well as in basic plant science. As HR-mediated GT is an extremely rare event, positive-negative selection has been used extensively in flowering plants to isolate cells in which GT has occurred. In order to utilize(More)
Gene targeting (GT) refers to the designed modification of genomic sequence(s) through homologous recombination (HR). GT is a powerful tool both for the study of gene function and for molecular breeding. However, in transformation of higher plants, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) occurs overwhelmingly in somatic cells, masking HR-mediated GT.(More)
Gene targeting (GT) is a technique used to modify endogenous genes in target genomes precisely via homologous recombination (HR). Although GT plants are produced using genetic transformation techniques, if the difference between the endogenous and the modified gene is limited to point mutations, GT crops can be considered equivalent to non-genetically(More)
Mammalian BLM helicase is involved in DNA replication, DNA repair and homologous recombination (HR). These DNA transactions are associated tightly with cell division and are important for maintaining genome stability. However, unlike in mammals, cell division in higher plants is restricted mainly to the meristem, thus genome maintenance at the meristem is(More)
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient and convenient tool for genome editing in plants. Cas9 nuclease derived from Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp) is commonly used in this system. Recently, Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9)-mediated genome editing was reported in human cells and Arabidopsis. Because SaCas9 (1053 a.a.) is smaller than SpCas9 (1368 a.a.),(More)