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The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated endonuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has been demonstrated to be a robust genome engineering tool in a variety of organisms including plants. However, it has been shown that the CRISPR/Cas9 system cleaves genomic DNA sequences containing mismatches to the guide RNA strand. We(More)
DNA damage checkpoints delay mitotic cell-cycle progression in response to DNA stress, stalling the cell cycle to allow time for repair. CDKB is a plant-specific cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) that is required for the G₂/M transition of the cell cycle. In Arabidopsis, DNA damage leads the degradation of CDKB2, and the subsequent G₂ arrest gives cells time to(More)
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient tool used for genome editing in a variety of organisms. Despite several recent reports of successful targeted mutagenesis using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in plants, in each case the target gene of interest, the Cas9 expression system and guide-RNA (gRNA) used, and the tissues used for transformation and subsequent(More)
Frequency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis varies depending on Cas9 expression level and culture period of rice callus. Recent reports have demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can function as a sequence-specific nuclease in various plant species. Induction of mutation in proliferating tissue during embryogenesis or in germline cells is a(More)
Accurate and effective positive marker excision is indispensable for the introduction of desired mutations into the plant genome via gene targeting (GT) using a positive/negative counter selection system. In mammals, the moth-derived piggyBac transposon system has been exploited successfully to eliminate a selectable marker from a GT locus without leaving a(More)
BACKGROUND Aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) is an uncommon condition that presents a problem in therapy because of the high rate of morbidity and mortality associated with its surgical management and the uniformly fatal outcome of medical treatment. In this article we describe a case of secondary AEF after endoluminal stent grafting of the thoracic aorta,(More)
Notch signaling is often and aberrantly activated by hypoxia during tumor progression; however, the exact pathological role of hypoxia-induced Notch signaling in tumor metastasis is as yet poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to define the mechanism of Notch-ligand activation by hypoxia in both primary tumor and bone stromal cells in the metastatic(More)
Precise genome engineering via homologous recombination (HR)-mediated gene targeting (GT) has become an essential tool in molecular breeding as well as in basic plant science. As HR-mediated GT is an extremely rare event, positive-negative selection has been used extensively in flowering plants to isolate cells in which GT has occurred. In order to utilize(More)
In urethane-chloralose anesthetized rats, the role of GABA(B) receptor in the commissural subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarii (commNTS) on the carotid chemoreceptor reflex was investigated. Microinjection of a GABA(B) agonist baclofen into the commNTS did not have any effects on arterial blood pressure (BP) or respiration (RP), while it attenuated(More)
Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are rare and a definitive treatment has not been established. Solitary or multiple, elevated or polypoid lesions are the usual appearances of MALT lymphoma in the colon and sometimes the surface may reveal abnormal vascularity. In this paper we report our experience with four cases of colonic MALT(More)