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Notch signaling is often and aberrantly activated by hypoxia during tumor progression; however, the exact pathological role of hypoxia-induced Notch signaling in tumor metastasis is as yet poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to define the mechanism of Notch-ligand activation by hypoxia in both primary tumor and bone stromal cells in the metastatic(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of the present study was to examine the safety and efficacy of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer (EGC) based on the long-term outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS From June 2002 to March 2007, ESD was carried out in 472 cases and 570 lesions of EGC. Post-surgical cases and status-unknown cases were excluded. The(More)
NDRG1 and KAI1 belong to metastasis suppressor genes, which impede the dissemination of tumor cells from primary tumors to distant organs. Previously, we identified the metastasis promoting transcription factor, ATF3, as a downstream target of NDRG1. Further analysis revealed that the KAI1 promoter contained a consensus binding motif of ATF3, suggesting a(More)
BACKGROUND There is no specific insertion method for patients who previously underwent an incomplete colonoscopy. No multicenter prospective study using a double-balloon endoscope (DBE) for total colonoscopy was previously performed. OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of using short DBEs in patients who previously underwent incomplete(More)
BACKGROUND Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) with an Adacolumn has been reported to be effective as induction therapy in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the effects of GMA on serial changes in cytokine levels have not been well characterized. We therefore, investigated cytokine levels in UC patients before and after treatment with GMA. A(More)