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Synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], a signaling phospholipid, is primarily carried out by phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase [PI(4)P5K], which has been reported to be regulated by RhoA and Rac1. Unexpectedly, we find that the GTPgammaS-dependent activator of PI(4)P5Kalpha is the small G protein ADP-ribosylation factor(More)
Genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screens have identified near-complete sets of genes involved in cellular processes. However, this methodology has not yet been used to study complex developmental processes in a tissue-specific manner. Here we report the use of a library of Drosophila strains expressing inducible hairpin RNAi constructs to study the Notch(More)
Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are retrieved by clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the nerve terminals. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] drives this event by recruiting the components of the endocytic machinery. However, the molecular mechanisms that result in local generation of PI(4,5)P2 remain unclear. We demonstrate here that AP-2 complex(More)
In Drosophila, planar cell polarity (PCP) molecules such as Dachsous (Ds) may function as global directional cues directing the asymmetrical localization of PCP core proteins such as Frizzled (Fz). However, the relationship between Ds asymmetry and Fz localization in the eye is opposite to that in the wing, thereby causing controversy regarding how these(More)
Phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol, collectively referred to as phosphoinositides, occur in the cytoplasmic leaflet of cellular membranes and regulate activities such as vesicle transport, cytoskeletal reorganization and signal transduction. Recent studies have indicated an important role for phosphoinositide metabolism in the aetiology of(More)
Stimulation of the neuronal cell adhesion molecule L1 in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) enhances neurite outgrowth and this response is inhibited by the primary alcohol ethanol. Because primary alcohols suppress the formation of the signaling lipid phosphatidic acid (PA) by phospholipase D (PLD), this observation prompted us to investigate whether PLD(More)
The membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)] is a critical signal transducer in eukaryotic cells. However, the physiological roles of the type I phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKIs) that synthesize PI(4,5)P(2) are largely unknown. Here, we show that the alpha isozyme of PIPKI (PIPKIalpha) negatively regulates(More)
Actin cytoskeletal reorganization and membrane trafficking are important for spine morphogenesis. Here we investigated whether the small GTPase, ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6), which regulates actin dynamics and peripheral vesicular trafficking, is involved in the regulation of spine formation. The developmental expression pattern of ARF6 in mouse(More)
We have shown that the ginsenosides Kit, and Rh2, which are plant glycosides with a dammarane skeleton resembling a steroid skeleton as an aglycone, control the phenotypic expression of mouse B16 melanoma cells in different ways. The effects of Rh, and Rh2 on the cell surface were studied to clarify the relationship between the control of phenotypic(More)
BACKGROUND Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is a key process that allows different cell types to be generated at precisely defined times and positions. In Drosophila, neural precursor cells rely heavily on ACD to generate the different cell types in the nervous system. A conserved protein machinery that regulates ACD has been identified in Drosophila, but how(More)